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What are the main characteristics of a CBD? How many characteristics of a CBD can you spot in the next four slides?

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Presentation on theme: "What are the main characteristics of a CBD? How many characteristics of a CBD can you spot in the next four slides?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 What are the main characteristics of a CBD? How many characteristics of a CBD can you spot in the next four slides?

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4 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? The Tallest Buildings Why? Public Buildings eg. Corn Exchange / Town Hall Busy – lots of pedestrians Markets

5 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Purpose built shopping centres providing undercover shopping experience Big Department Stores and National Chain Stores – why?

6 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Public Buildings eg. Corn Exchange / Town Hall Very accessible – public transport & traffic management required due to congestion. Historic/ old street pattern – often some narrow streets Some of the oldest buildings

7 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Entertainment – e.g. restaurants Entertainment e.g. cinemas (although increasingly these are moving further out of town) Entertainment e.g. pubs

8 Urban land use: Zone 1 CBD = Central Business District The CBD is at the heart of a town or city and usually has great accessibility, large shopping and banking areas, and government buildings

9 Characteristics of a CBD Old Core - often narrow streets / historical core (e.g. Old Portsmouth) -Very Accessible - major rail and road routes (often find public transport stations meet here - e.g. railway stations / bus stations) Entertainment - restaurants, clubs, etc Historical buildings (e.g. museums, castles, etc.) Government buildings (e.g. councils) Many have covered shopping centres (e.g. Cascades) Traffic Restrictions e.g. pedestrian areas (like Commercial Rd) Land has very high value - due to lack of space and competition for land Many National Chain stores (attract larger numbers of customers + can afford the high land cost/rent - e.g. M&S; WHS; Topshop Little/ No Residential because so expensive, maybe some flats above shops Banks, building societies, Estate Agents – where they can receive more customers

10 THE INNER CITY (ZONE 2) Also known as the Twilight or Transition Zone

11 Typical style of housing in the Inner City Typical aerial view of an Inner City Area Zone 2 of the Urban Land-use Model – THE INNER CITY

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13 When and Why did Inner City Areas Grow up? Developed during the 19 th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers) As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workers This resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small area People had to live close to work due to lack of transport

14 What types of land-use are found in Inner City areas? 19 th Century Terraced Housing Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted) Canals and RailwaysMain Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs)

15 Typical Characteristics of Inner City Areas High Density Housing Mainly terraced (some back to back) Built in Long Straight Rows Front doors opening onto the street Few Amenities (little or no sanitation (often built with toilet in Back Yard Mainly Ethnic Minorities, students, older people and unemployed (lower income groups) Mainly private / rented

16 Problems in Inner City Areas (since 1950s / 1950s) 1. Industrial Decline (see other notes) 2. High unemployment 3. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism 4. High Crime Rates 5. Poor Quality Housing 6. Overcrowding 7. Lack of Open Space 8. Lack of Parking Spaces 9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic) 10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)

17 Zone 2: Inner City What is the Inner City? The Inner City is the land-use zone around the city centre, it is also known as the twilight zone or zone of transition. When did the Inner City grow up? Inner city areas grew up in the 19th century as towns increased rapidly due to the Industrial Revolution. This led to the growth of factories and low-cost terraced housing around what is now the city centre.

18 Characteristics of the Inner City High density 19th Century housing and manufacturing. Housing is usually linear, back to back and terraced This area tends to be run down unless housing has been redeveloped Land values are lower than those in the CBD. However, they still remain high. Houses are cheaper to buy / rent Population density in the inner city is very high as houses have been squeezed in. crowded areas with little open space Front doors open straight on to the pavement No front or back gardens (just a small back yard) factories providing employment for residents Social Problems - high crime rates, above average concentrations of low- income citizens

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20 Reasons for Suburban Growth Reasons for Growth of the Suburbs 1.Better public transport and increased car ownership meant people could separate work from where they live. 2. Building societies provided mortgages making it easier to buy homes 3. People were better off and looking for a better living environment. INNER AND OUTER SUBURBS

21 RURAL-URBAN FRINGE This has lead to conflict due to different land-uses wanting to locate here (see diagram for examples)

22 Land use in cities Land use zones.

23 Recap Qs On paper, sketch the diagram + label the 5 zones from memory. Outer Suburbs Inner Suburbs Inner City/ Twilight Zone Industrial Zone CBD

24 Recap Qs 1)Which is the oldest part of the city? 2)What does ‘CBD’ stand for? 3)In which zone would you expect to find small terraced housing? 4)Why are there not many detached houses with drives near the CBD?

25 6. Semi-detached houses with gardens 11. Lots of public transport links 10. Parks and open spaces 18. Modern out- of -town shopping centres 16. Terraced housing 17. Some garages 9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas 5. Shops and Offices 13. Tall high density buildings 1. Leisure and entertainment facilities 15. Land is cheaper 14. Cheapest housing 19. High-value land 3. Very few driveways 2. Large detached houses with garages 8. Grew in response to increased car ownership 12. Oldest 4. Most expensive houses 20. Industry + factories 7. Newest

26 Match it up! Colour code the statements to fit the 5 categories: CBD – Inner City/Twilight Zone – Industrial Zone – Inner Suburbs – Outer Suburbs Remember to use a key

27 6. Semi- detached houses with gardens 11. Lots of public transport links 10. Parks and open spaces 18. Modern out- of -town shopping centres 16. Terraced housing 17. Some garages 9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas 5. Shops and Offices 13. Tall high density buildings 1. Leisure and entertainment facilities 15. Land is cheaper 14. Cheapest housing 19. High-value land 3. Very few driveways 2. Large detached houses with garages 8. Grew in response to increased car ownership 12. Oldest 4. Most expensive houses 20. Industry 7. Newest 6. Semi- detached houses with gardens 11. Lots of public transport links 10. Parks and open spaces 18. Modern out- of -town shopping centres 16. Terraced housing 17. Some garages 9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas 5. Shops and Offices 13. Tall high density buildings 1. Leisure and entertainment facilities 15. Land is cheaper 14. Cheapest housing 19. High-value land 3. Very few driveways 2. Large detached houses with garages 8. Grew in response to increased car ownership 12. Oldest 4. Most expensive houses 20. Industry + factories 7. Newest

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