Presentation on theme: "Tourism Models You will learn: Britton’s Core-Periphery Enclave Model"— Presentation transcript:
1Tourism Models You will learn: Britton’s Core-Periphery Enclave Model Butler’s Life Cycle ModelHow areas progress through Butler’s model
2Core Periphery Enclave Model Explains social influences of tourism on developing nations and the role of tourism in economic developmentDeveloped by Britton (1981)
3The modelStates:Flow of tourists from developed countries (CORE) into developing countries (PERIPHERY)Tour operators / airlines / hotel owners tend to be located in the CORE hence developed countries control the tourism industryENCLAVESModel states there are enclaves (area within a developing country designated for tourism)These ensure tourists have minimal contact with local residents and hence little experience of the reality of these people’s lives
4Butler Based on MEDC tourism Life Cycle of a Resort Tourism viewed as a resource6 StagesExplorationInvolvementDevelopmentConsolidationStagnationDecline OR Rejuvenation
6ExplorationSmall number of tourist attracted by culture / natural beautyLimited numbersFew facilities exist
7InvolvementSome involvement by locals to provide tourists with facilitiesRecognisable tourist seasonDeveloping tourism market
8Development Large numbers of tourists Control of market moves from locals to external bodies e.g. TNC’sConflict between residents and tourists
9Consolidation Tourism constitutes major part of economy Tourist numbers plateauOlder facilities seen as “second rate”
10StagnationPeak tourist numbers reachedResort no longer fashionable
11Decline OR Rejuvenation Attractiveness continues to declineVisitors lost to other resorts / destinationsResort becomes dependant on day / weekend visitors from limited geographical areaUnless efforts made to modernise and rejuvenate resort will continue to decline
13Development & Consolidation Exploration1960’s only 0.4 million tourists to the Costa del Sol, visiting for the beach holidaysInvolvement1970's numbers rose to 3 million.Farmland built on, infrastructure improved.Transition from resource based to demand basedDevelopment & Consolidation1980’s numbers rocketed to 7 million (carrying capacity reached)Clubs, bars, restaurants and more hotels were built, leading to environmental degradation.
14StagnationLate 1980’s area began to stagnate, and was no longer fashionable.Attractive mountainous area blocked by large hotel developments,Beaches dirty from litter left by touristsPolluted from excessive sewage.Strain on resources e.g. waterIt takes gallons to run a luxury hotel for a day.
15Decline OR Rejuvenation?? 1990s Costa del Sol began rejuvenation.Beaches tidied &achieved EU Blue FlagVAT cut to 6% to encourage tourists and businessesTourism began to diversify to eco tourism and heritage tourism.Development of Coto Donana national park to 'Costa Donana’ abandonedWetland area popular with rare birdsPrevious development had seen a drop in the water table and the death of wild birds form pesticide contamination
16Spanish Tourism TodayTourism spread more inland to Madrid and BarcelonaHistorical & City based tourism gains popularityCulturally diverse areas such as Almeria have also gained popularitySpain has not seen a decline in tourism, but a spatial change moving inlandCosta Del Sol
17Task!!Using an A3 copy of the Butler Model create a “living graph” showing the full life cycle of the Costa del Sol Tourist areaYou must add detail about specific issues in the area: e.g. changes in tourism, local employment, holiday accommodation, infrastructure, landscape and environment including waste and resource management, prices, impacts of “globalisation” or more specifically “Anglicanisation”, changing type of tourists on the Costa, etc, etc