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Tourism Models You will learn: Britton’s Core-Periphery Enclave Model Butler’s Life Cycle Model How areas progress through Butler’s model.

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Presentation on theme: "Tourism Models You will learn: Britton’s Core-Periphery Enclave Model Butler’s Life Cycle Model How areas progress through Butler’s model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tourism Models You will learn: Britton’s Core-Periphery Enclave Model Butler’s Life Cycle Model How areas progress through Butler’s model

2 Core Periphery Enclave Model Explains social influences of tourism on developing nations and the role of tourism in economic development Developed by Britton (1981)

3 The model States: – Flow of tourists from developed countries (CORE) into developing countries (PERIPHERY) – Tour operators / airlines / hotel owners tend to be located in the CORE hence developed countries control the tourism industry – ENCLAVES Model states there are enclaves (area within a developing country designated for tourism) These ensure tourists have minimal contact with local residents and hence little experience of the reality of these people’s lives

4 Butler Based on MEDC tourism Life Cycle of a Resort Tourism viewed as a resource 6 Stages – Exploration – Involvement – Development – Consolidation – Stagnation – Decline OR Rejuvenation

5 The Butler Model

6 Exploration Small number of tourist attracted by culture / natural beauty Limited numbers Few facilities exist

7 Involvement Some involvement by locals to provide tourists with facilities Recognisable tourist season Developing tourism market

8 Development Large numbers of tourists Control of market moves from locals to external bodies e.g. TNC’s Conflict between residents and tourists

9 Consolidation Tourism constitutes major part of economy Tourist numbers plateau Older facilities seen as “second rate”

10 Stagnation Peak tourist numbers reached Resort no longer fashionable

11 Decline OR Rejuvenation Attractiveness continues to decline Visitors lost to other resorts / destinations Resort becomes dependant on day / weekend visitors from limited geographical area Unless efforts made to modernise and rejuvenate resort will continue to decline

12 Case Study Spain - Costa del Sol

13 Exploration – 1960’s only 0.4 million tourists to the Costa del Sol, visiting for the beach holidays Involvement – 1970's numbers rose to 3 million. – Farmland built on, infrastructure improved. – Transition from resource based to demand based Development & Consolidation – 1980’s numbers rocketed to 7 million (carrying capacity reached) – Clubs, bars, restaurants and more hotels were built, leading to environmental degradation.

14 Stagnation – Late 1980’s area began to stagnate, and was no longer fashionable. – Attractive mountainous area blocked by large hotel developments, – Beaches dirty from litter left by tourists – Polluted from excessive sewage. – Strain on resources e.g. water It takes gallons to run a luxury hotel for a day.

15 Decline OR Rejuvenation?? – 1990s Costa del Sol began rejuvenation. – Beaches tidied &achieved EU Blue Flag – VAT cut to 6% to encourage tourists and businesses – Tourism began to diversify to eco tourism and heritage tourism. Development of Coto Donana national park to 'Costa Donana’ abandoned Wetland area popular with rare birds Previous development had seen a drop in the water table and the death of wild birds form pesticide contamination

16 Spanish Tourism Today – Tourism spread more inland to Madrid and Barcelona – Historical & City based tourism gains popularity – Culturally diverse areas such as Almeria have also gained popularity – Spain has not seen a decline in tourism, but a spatial change moving inland Costa Del Sol

17 Task!! Using an A3 copy of the Butler Model create a “living graph” showing the full life cycle of the Costa del Sol Tourist area You must add detail about specific issues in the area: e.g. changes in tourism, local employment, holiday accommodation, infrastructure, landscape and environment including waste and resource management, prices, impacts of “globalisation” or more specifically “Anglicanisation”, changing type of tourists on the Costa, etc, etc


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