Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to the Tourism Geography of Europe."— Presentation transcript:
An Introduction to the Tourism Geography of Europe
Learning Objectives 1 Appreciate why Europe continues to dominate world tourism; 2 Understand the major patterns of tourism demand in Europe; 3 Be aware of the major physical and social features in Europe and their implications for tourism; 4 Appreciate the role of the European Union and the Euro in tourism organisation and development; 5 Recognise the major geographical influences on the distribution of tourism resources in Europe; 6 Recognise the role of improvements in transport infrastructure in encouraging a freer movement of tourists throughout Europe.
Introduction A region of economic, cultural and social diversity Dominates tourism but market share falling Dominates tourism because: Mature economies Affluent population World Class attraction The Euro Small countries in close proximity Climatic variation Mature tourism sector Competent public sector
The Physical Setting The North European Plain The Mountain ranges The Alps The Pyrenees The Balkans The Carpathians The Caucasus The Kjolen Mountains The Mediterranean The Baltic sea
Cultural Features A mosaic of languages, traditions and cultures Lifestyle differences Between North and South Between West and East Between Mountains and Plains Historic stages of development Prehistoric Greco Roman Romanesque Gothic Renaissance/Baroque Industrial Revolution Post-Industrial
Tourism demand: Demographic Trends · Decreasing propensity to marry · Increasing diversity of lifestyles and living arrangements · A trend to marrying later in life · A decline in fertility · An increase in the number of divorces · An increase in immigration
Tourism demand Changing flows away from north/south due to: Consumers are tiring of the inclusive-tour format; The Mediterranean is becoming increasingly polluted; Traditional sun, sea and sand holidays are less popular, as people become more aware of the risk of skin cancer; Competing destinations for other forms of tourism have become increasingly available; New destinations are opening up in the east of Europe; Long-haul destinations are growing in popularity; The adoption of the Euro making what had been reasonably-priced destinations, such as Spain more expensive.
Tourism Demand Trends Shorter tourism trips Short break city and cultural tours East-West travel and West-East travel Growth of the young and the elderly travelling More trips within Europe Trend to activity holidays Greater use of air travel (budget airlines) Business tourism continues to be strong Growth potential in the East and South Capacity ceilings reached in the West
Supply of Tourism: Transport Influence of de-regulation Growth of regional airports and airlines Growth of budget airlines Negative impact of 9/11 Investment in high-speed rail Easier pan-European road travel
Tourism Supply Transport Trends A more deregulated and liberal environment for transport and other tourism sectors, although this has been set back by the need for the public sector to support the airlines following 9/11; Improved quality of existing provision of tourism supply in the former countries of the Eastern Bloc; Diversification of products in established destinations, such as coastal resorts; Special interest, city-based, activity-centred developments growing at the expense of traditional beach resorts; Consumer and government support for sustainable tourism products and destinations; Cruising combined with special interest activities as a growth area; and Expansion of business tourism facilities in the former Eastern Bloc.
Tourism Supply Attractions High Quality Cultural and Physical Southern Pleasure Periphery Mountains Lowlands Accommodation Small businesses dominate Organisation Complex Varies nationally Role is to develop and promote Trend to devolution
Tourism Demand Europeans will continue to take more, but shorter tourism trips Short-break city and cultural tourism is growing rapidly; Traditional north-south holidays are still a significant feature of European tourism, but east-west and west-east travel is growing rapidly; Significant market segments for the growth of tourism will be those aged over 55 years, and those aged under 25 years of age; Intra-regional flows of tourism dominate Europes international tourism, but their share is decreasing; The market is moving increasingly towards holidays which involve active pursuits, and/or exposure to local society and culture; Decreasing popularity of the car for leisure-based trips and an increase in the use of air travel, encouraged by the growth of budget airlines; Demand for business tourism in Europe will continue to be strong despite the growth of communication technologies; and Capacity ceilings are being reached in some Western European countries, whereas countries in eastern and southern Europe have considerable growth potential.