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Strategic Communication Master Class Brigadier Iain Harrison Director STRATCOM Ops/Plans and Information Operations, Headquarters International Security.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategic Communication Master Class Brigadier Iain Harrison Director STRATCOM Ops/Plans and Information Operations, Headquarters International Security."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategic Communication Master Class Brigadier Iain Harrison Director STRATCOM Ops/Plans and Information Operations, Headquarters International Security Assistance Force Overall Briefing Classification: NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

2 Agenda An ISAF theatre perspective of Strategic Communication –How we do it……….. Topics –Strategic Challenges –Narrative formation –Environmental analysis –Public/stakeholder analysis –Framing the message –Strategic vision –Long range horizon scanning –Campaign planning –Synergy of influence activity NATO/ISAF UNCLAS

3 Terminology (Aarrghh..!) (Strategic Challenges) Information Operations (US JP 3-13, AJP 3-10 and UK JDP ): –The integrated employment of the core capabilities of EW, CNO, PSYOP, MILDEC and OPSEC in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision-making while protecting our own –A military function to provide advice and coordination of military information activities in order to create desired effects on the will, understanding and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries and other NAC approved parties in support of Alliance mission objectives –Coordinated actions undertaken to influence an adversary or potential adversary in support of political and military objectives by undermining his will, cohesion and decision making ability, through affecting his information, information based processes and systems while protecting ones own decision makers and decision making processes PSYOPS/MISO (US JP1-02; MC 402; AJP 3-10 and UK JDP ): –Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning and ultimately behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups and individuals. The purpose of PSYOP is to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to the originators objective. –Planned psychological activities using methods of communications and other means directed to approved audiences in order to influence perceptions, attitudes and behaviour, affecting the achievement of political and military objectives –Planned psychological operations that pursue objectives to gain the support and cooperation of supportive and neutral audiences and to reduce the will and the capacity of hostile or potentially hostile audiences to commit aggressive action, and contribute to crisis management and deterrence in support of diplomatic actions. –Planned, culturally sensitive, truthful and attributable activities directed at approved target audiences within the joint operations area in order to achieve political and military objectives by influencing attitudes and behaviour. Influence (Draft FM 3-00 and JDP 3-40): –To effectively change attitudes, beliefs and ultimately behavior of foreign friendly, neutral, adversary and enemy audiences to support operations –To affect the character or behaviour of someone or something Inform (Draft FM 3-00): –To provide information to domestic and foreign audiences to accurately describe operations Outreach: No doctrinal terms STRATCOM (Various Sources) –…the processes and efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen or preserve conditions favourable to advance [our] interests and objectives –A systematic series of sustained and coherent activities, conducted across strategic, operational and tactical levels, that enables understanding of target audiences, identifies effective conduits, and develops and promotes ideas and opinions through these conduits to promote and sustain particular types of behaviour –In concert with other political and military actors and with higher headquarters, STRATCOM advances ISAFs aims and objectives through the coordinated use of PA, PSYOPS, IO and KLE Strategic Communication: Coordinated actions, messages, images, and other forms of signaling or engagement intended to inform, influence, or persuade…selected audiences in support of [……] objectives Christopher Paul HASC Testimony Information Operations (Function): A military function to provide advice and coordination of military information activities in order to create desired effects on the will, understanding and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries and other NAC approved parties in support of Alliance mission objectives AJP 3-10 Information Operations (Capabilities) – some or all of: The integrated employment of the core capabilities of EW, CNO, PSYOP, MILDEC and OPSEC in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision-making while protecting our own ([US] JP 3- 13)

4 Communication Mission Plan, execute, and assess all communication efforts in order to….. Increase public understanding of the role of: –International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and –Government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) Encourage the Afghan people to become more active in their own security, governance and development Counter insurgent propaganda ….influence the perceptions and behaviour of friendly, neutral and enemy audiences in support of ISAF objectives…

5 Horizontal and Vertical Integration (Strategic Challenges) Including IO capabilities Theatre Level IOTheatre Level PAOperational Level IOOperational Level PATactical Level IOTactical Level PA IJC NTM-A Spec TFs ISAF RCs Bdes Including IO capabilities Theatre-Strategic Plans/Ops Operational Plans/Ops Tactical Plans/Ops Out of Theatre Military/ Civilian IO Organisations Direct Act Direct Act Direct Act NATO (and Other) Narrative(s) Communication Effects STRATCOM Ops/Plans Out of Theatre Military/ Civilian PA Organisations

6 The Capabilities (Strategic Challenges) Traditional Communication (Outreach) Public Affairs (Media Ops) Firewall ISAF Full Spectrum Information Operations STRATCOM or Communication or Information Activity or Etc, Etc, Etc Special Technical Programmes Physical Destruction PSYOPS Key Leader Engagement Deception Posture, Profile and Presence Computer Network Operations NATO IO Electronic Warfare OPSEC Information Security CIMIC PSYOPS Key Leader Engagement Deception Posture, Profile and Presence Computer Network Operations UK IO Special Capabilities Military Information Support Operations (PSYOPS) Military Deception Electronic Warfare Operational Security Computer Network Operations (Cyber) US IO Key Leader Engagement

7 HQ ISAF STRATCOM Structure and Linkages (Strategic Challenges) COMISAF Other DCOS DCOS [STRAT]COM DDCOS [STRAT]COM Public Affairs Dir STRATCOM Ops/Plans & IO IO Capabilities MISO (PSYOPS) Task Force Special Capabilities Traditional Communication STRATCOM Ops/Plans STRATCOM Plans (CJ5 link) STRATCOM Ops (CJ35/3 link) Assessments DCOS Intelligence DCOS Operations DCOS Strategic Partnering Key Leader Engagement [DCOS] Reintegration [DCOS] Counter Corruption DCOMISAFCOSISAF ISAF Spokesman IO Cell NATO/ISAF UNCLAS

8 Operating Environment (Strategic Challenges) Challenges –Human terrain complexity Physical Motivations, culture and narratives Literacy –Media penetration –Credible voices –Increasingly skeptical audiences –Information agility Atmospherics and Human Terrain Teams Assessments and Media Monitoring

9 DCOS COMM Ministers/S ecretaries MODs CHoDs Heads of State Public SNRs NATO NGOs Kabul International Community Regional Nations Troop Contributing Nations US International Organisations Afghan * Business Leaders, Power Brokers, Tribal Elders, Mullahs Security Ministeries EU UNAMA SACEUR / SHAPE Other Govt Institutions Key Figures* Academics PoA Development Ministries JFC-B NAC (Brussels) Ambassadors IOs Western US Regional Afghan Academics/Th ink Tanks HQ ISAFNTM-A IJC JTF-435 RCs Environmental Analysis: Audiences and Partners Media

10 Strategy-Based but Agile STRATCOM NATO/ISAF UNCLAS Routine PSYOPS Series Shaping/Drumbeat Activity Routine Media Engagements Shaping/Drumbeat Activity Routine Key Leader Engagement Shaping/Drumbeat Activity Transition Tranche 2 Bonn Conference US Drawdown Op WHATEVEROp ANOTHER Consequence Management Coherence, consistency, credibility

11 A narrative is a statement of identity, cause and intent around which [ISAF] can unite. It must be convincing, transparent, adaptive and, above all, attractive. Prof Paul Cornish Key Guidelines: Remain true to the core message & look at daily events within the context of a long-term view. Every ISAF action must link back to the narrative. Must be adaptive: it tells us what to say, not necessarily how to say it. Must be convincing and intrinsically believable to every target audience. Therefore it must be accurate and true as well as factual. Must be simple and transparent. Key planning steps: Identify key Target Audiences whose decisions matter for mission success. Conditions ID must resonate with Target Audiences. Action steps must make logical sense – to TA. The benefits must be valuable and attractive – to TA. Main Action Step The Benefits: Why should the audience go along? Whats in it for them? Main Action Step Identify the Opportunity: Where we offer hope Target Audience (TA): International Community - Troop Contributing Nations - Individual Nations Public GIRoA & Key Afghan Leaders ANSF TBSL & low level INS Neighbouring States Local Afghan populace Conditions ID: Must resonate with TA The big idea The ISAF Narrative Structure One narrative to drive all communication efforts

12 Thirty years of struggle for the Afghan people Years of conflict and war destroyed the fabric of Afghan society and shattered its social institutions. It turned Afghan against Afghan; a misguided few against the peaceful, non-violent ways of the many. But after 10 years of international assistance, things are now changing. Afghanistan is moving forward Now is the time for GIRoA and its security forces to build a better and more prosperous future for Afghanistan, and bring hope to its people. They have begun the process of Inteqal (Transition) under which the Afghan people will see their police and their army ensuring their security in their own country under the control of their government. Those who fight against the Afghan Government and people have a choice For peace to prevail, the insurgents - the enemies of peace - must choose to end their violent, extremist ways. The Afghan Peace & Reintegration Programme (APRP) provides local fighters the choice to rejoin their families and communities, and to work alongside all Afghans for a peaceful and more prosperous future. If they chose to fight, they will face unrelenting pressure. We will continue to support GIRoA & the ANSF Afghans welcome Inteqal and accept that for now our support and assistance is needed. They can be confident that we will assist and support their government and their security forces to build and develop their capacity and effectiveness. Our support will continue until GIRoA and the ANSF are able to secure Afghanistans future and bring hope of greater prosperity to its people. Our role is changing, but our commitment will endure By the time Transition is complete our role will change from combat operations to support, based on a shared commitment to peace and stability. This will mark the start of a renewed relationship with the people of Afghanistan, and one which will endure for as long as it is needed. A Pathway to Stability, Peace & Prosperity The international communitys wish is to see an Afghan government that is able to provide for its peoples security, serve its peoples interests well, and offer all Afghans a more hopeful and prosperous future. Afghanistan will never again be a safe haven for terrorists. Stability, Peace & Prosperity Campaign Themes: PRESSURE - ANSF GROWTH - TRANSITION - PARTNERSHIP Conditions ID OpportunityAction Steps The Benefits Target Audience (TA): International Community - Troop Contributing Nations - Individual Nations Public GIRoA & Key Afghan Leaders ANSF TBSL & low level INS Neighbouring States Local Afghan populace The ISAF Narrative One narrative to drive all communication efforts

13 COMISAF OPLAN Revision 6 The challenge is to craft strategic communications to reinforce the narrative. Joint Doctrine Note 1/11 Strategic Communication: The Defence Contribution From Narrative to Strategy to Action

14 Afghan National Security Forces Unity of Effort Transition Pressuring the Enemy Communication Strategy Emphasis of Effects E5: Afghans understand the benefits of Transition E6: Afghans perceive GIRoA offers the best hope for the future of Afghanistan E1: INS ability to influence the population is diminished Promote Reconciliation Efforts E2: INS morale and cohesion are undermined E8: Afghans perceive the ANSF as legitimate & capable E11: IC continues to support the NATO mission beyond 2014 E12: Afghans have confidence in the ICs long term commitment to Afghanistan E3: Afghans support for the INS is diminished E10: Afghans perceive their daily life to be safe & have confidence in their future safety E9: Afghans support the ANSF E7: Criminal actors and CPNs are unable to influence significantly legitimate governance & undermine RoL O1O2O3O4O5O6O7O8O9 E4: Afghans support APRP PH1: ISAF-led expansion of security, governance and development PH 2: GIRoA/ANSF led expansion of security, governance and development PH 3: Strategic Partnership and Safehaven Denial ISAF NARRATIVE – A Pathway to Stability, Peace & Prosperity

15 Strategy-Based PSYOPS NATO/ISAF UNCLAS LOO 1 LOO 2 LOO 3 LOO 4 LOO 5 LOO 6 Protect the Population Develop the ANSF Neutralise INS Networks Neutralise CPN Support Legitimate Governance Support Sustainable Socio-Econ Dev Theatre Strategic Operational Tactical Afghan Local Police Highlighting Insurgent Atrocity Guardians of Peace Countering Narcotics Civic Awareness Afghan Local Police Building the Future Countering Propaganda Counter Command ANSF Professionalism and Capability Promote Reintegration Civic Awareness Civic Duty Promotion of Specific Trades National Unity Governance Awareness Promote Reintegration Highlighting Insurgent Atrocity Sow Seeds of Doubt Countering Corruption Public SafetyTips Lines Public Safety

16 and….not forgetting the Bad Guys NATO/ISAF UNCLAS Undermine Morale Exploit Fissures Seize the Narrative Initiative Counter Propaganda Disrupt Supply Networks Disrupt Wider Support

17 STRATCOM Planning Threats and Opportunities NATO/ISAF UNCLAS OctNovDecJanFebMarAprMayJunJul Istanbul Conference Transition Tranche 2 Announcement World Bank Report 10 th Anniversary Kabul Liberation Chicago Summit Bonn Conference 10 th Anniversary Kandahar Liberation Transition Tranche 2 Starts Transition Tranche 3 Announcement 10 th Anniversary UNSCR COMISAF Congressional Testimony ISAF Defence Ministers NGO Reports Messages for emphasis/key effects Enduring partnership – enemies have a choice and cant wait us out Opportunity 10 years on Regional dialogue Eid al Adha/Reintegration Surge

18 ISAF STRATCOM/IO Action Worksheet: Aftermath of Rabbanis Assassination Background On 20 Sep 11, Professor Rabbani, Chairman of the High Peace Council and former President of Afghanistan (PoA), was killed in a suicide attack that also wounded Minister Estanekzai. As a result, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan(GIRoA) declared a three-day mourning period, ending on 23 Sep 11. GEN Allens initial guidance was to amplify PoAs message and highlight that now is the time to reintegrate and join the future of Afghanistan. ISAF Core Narrative Linkage Those who fight against the Afghan Government and people have a choice. For peace to prevail, the insurgents - the enemies of peace - must choose to end their violent, extremist ways. Our International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) support will continue until GIRoA and the ANSF are able to secure Afghanistans future and bring hope of greater prosperity to its people. Afghanistan will never again be a safe haven for terrorists. Objectives Ensure unity of effort and communication between ISAF and GIRoA Promote a proactive communication posture among GIRoA security ministry communication channels Target Audiences Insurgents Afghan population International Community Afghan Key Communicators STRATCOM Effects The Afghan population rejects the insurgency and dismisses their actions as desperate and pointless attacks on peace and stability. The insurgents perceived cost of fighting Afghan and/or ISAF security forces to reach their goals far outweighs the benefits of reintegrating into Afghan society. GIRoA leads in reinforcing PoAs message and communicating on the themes of transition, reintegration, and peace. Key Messages (Consolidated Talking Points) While tragic and while a set-back, this event should unite all Afghans in their resolve for peace, their intolerance for violence, and their commitment to a stable and prosperous Afghanistan. COMISAF The attacks cannot stop the transition process from taking place and cannot affect, but rather will embolden, the Afghan peoples determination to take responsibility for their countrys own affairs. PoA Now is the time to reintegrate and become part of the future of Afghanistan. The insurgent assassination campaign is not the answer to a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. The failure of operation Al Badr is pressuring the insurgents into desperate measures that are counterproductive to their goals. Insurgent violence against the People of Afghanistan must not continue. Tasks All Public Affairs (PA) and Spokesmen: Amplify GIRoAs messages of transition, reintegration, and peace. Inform the Afghan populace that the insurgents have the option of reintegration. ISAF and IJC IO : Highlight the themes of reintegration and peace IOT reinforce GIRoAs message. Reinforce the message of ISAFs enduring commitment to GIRoA for a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. HQ ISAF International Security Assistance Force Joint Command (IJC) and NTM-A KLE: Emphasize ISAFs enduring commitment to support GIRoA. Persuade Afghan leadership to be more proactive about promoting peace and reintegration. HQ ISAF Traditional Communication (TRADCOMM) and IJC/RC Equivalents: Persuade tribal, religious and youth leadership to be more proactive about promoting peace and reintegration. HQ ISAF Government Media and Information Center (GMIC) LNOs: Encourage Afghans to be more proactive in communicating the context of INS actions - emphasizing the importance of the Afghan publics perception of such actions; coordinate and synchronize ISAF and GIRoA communication efforts where possible. HQ ISAF, IJC and Ministry Partners: Conduct engagements to have Ministers communicate messages of Afghan National Security Force (ANSF) success, ISAF enduring commitment to the population and to be more proactive about promoting peace and reintegration.

19 DateTue 20 SepWed 21 SepThu 22 SepFri 23 SepSat 24 SepSun 25 SepMon 26 SepTue 27 Sep Key Event Suicide Attack Kills Prof Rabbani PoA Speech on Rabbanis Death Rabbanis Funeral & Friday Prayers Afghan Activity ISAF and IC Key Activity Other ISAF Activity Synchronisation: PSYOPS Shaping Activity (CJPOTF) Disrupt INS Propaganda Efforts– INS leaders exploit combatants and cadre from safe havens in PAK Targeted Reintegration Efforts International condemnations COMISAF Statement President Karzais Speech ISAF/SCR Press Conference Sporadic Protests Denouncing Death Key ISAF personnel attend funeral Key leaders statements Consolidated ISAF Talking Points Issued to ISAF and GMIC PA: RTQ, interviews and backgrounders PSYOPS: Radio audio products (PRN) via CJPOTF NATO Media Tour to 30 Sep RTQ – Response to Query PRN – PSYOPS Radio Network (CJPOTF) Senior Leader KLE Tribal/Religious/Youth KLETribal/Religious/Youth Leaders KLE Ministry Partner EngagementIJC/NTM-A Engagement with Ministry Partners PSYOPS: Audio/Video Products Development/Dissemination DCOS COMM LNOs ISAF/GIRoA Comm Synch National Days of Mourning PA: new media engagements

20 Some Reflections Concept/Doctrine: Effects v Communicating –Terminology.....! –HQ structure – STRATCOM Directorates…? –DCOS STRATCOMs background –JOA authorities and leveraging Regional Effects –Contracted support – from the outset More challenges….. –Conflict fatigue and credibility –Afghan Sovereignty Non-traditional communication means –TRADCOMM –Youth sports strategy –Youth and other outreach Linking outreach with influence efforts The Key to the Future: Working with the Afghan Government

21 STRATCOM / Info Ops – My Top Ten Needs to be Command led Centrality of the Narrative The Simplicity Imperative Consistency Research – breadth and depth Horizontal and vertical Coherence (coordination) Indivisibility of the information environment Dialogue – not monologue/broadcast Timing and Tempo – first with the truth and variation of pace Assessment – a little and often: science and art NATO/ISAF UNCLAS

22 Questions?


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