Presentation on theme: "Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3-07; and Army"— Presentation transcript:
1 Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3-07; and Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 3-07, Stability
2 Stability DoctrinePurpose: to provide an overview of the main ideas in Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3-07 and Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 3-07; and highlight the significant changes from FM 3-07.ADP and ADRP 3-07 presents overarching doctrinal guidance and direction for conducting stability operations. It applies to the civilian leadership of the Army and is also intended to serve as a resource for the other government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and private sector entities who seek to better understand the role of the military in broader reconstruction and stabilization efforts.
3 ADP and ADRPADP – is a Department of the Army publication that contains the fundamental principlesby which the operating forces and elements of the generating forces directly supportsoperations; ADP 3-07 establishes the base doctrine for the stability conceptualframework.ADRP – is a Department of the Army publication that provides a more detailedexplanation of principles contained in the related ADP. An ADRP provides thefoundational understanding so everyone in the Army can interpret the ADP the sameway; ADRP 3-07 expands in more detail on the stability conceptual framework.
4 Comparison with FM 3-07 DOCTRINE 2015 STABILITY OPERATIONSDOCTRINE 2015ADP and ADRP 3-07 remains generally consistent with FM 3-07 on the principles and foundations for stability in operations.Strategic context and the fragile states framework is consistent with FM 3-07emphasizes military operations.ADP and ADRP modify the elements of the strategic approach for stability and renames the discussion as the stability principles and also renames the Strategy for Stability Operations as End State Conditions for Stability in Operations.ADP and ADRO introduce the Army’s new operational concept of unified land operations as it applies to stability. It links military and civilian efforts as part of unified action to stabilize the host nation. It updates the discussion of the primary stability tasks to align with ADRP 3-0.ADP and ADRP discuss considerations of stability tasks unique to activities and operations.ADP and ADRP discuss planning for stability in operations and aligns the discussion with ADRP 3-0 and ADRP 5-0. It elaborates on planning considerations, the commander’s role in planning, and operational art in stability in operations.ADP and ADRP expands the discussion on assessments and the District Stability Framework.These are the major changes in this manual.Changes reflect lessons learned over the past 10 years of sustained land combat
5 Stability LogicThis chart lays out the underlying logic and central idea of ADP/ADRP 3-07Stability ultimately aims to create a condition so the local populace regards the situation as legitimate, acceptable, and predictable. These conditions consist of the level of violence; the functioning of governmental, economic, and societal institutions; and the general adherence to local laws, rules, and norms of behavior.Stabilization is a process in which personnel identify and mitigate underlying sources of instability to establish the conditions for long-term stability. While long-term development requires stability, stability does not require long-term development. Therefore, stability tasks focus on identifying and targeting the root causes of instability and by building the capacity of local institutionsStability tasks are tasks conducted by the US Military as part of operations outside the United States using a comprehensive and whole of government approach to integrate the cooperative efforts of the departments and agencies of the USG, international partners, and private sector entities to achieve Unified Action , the unity of effort toward a shared goal. A comprehensive approach builds from the cooperative spirit of unity of effort. The shared purpose of the combined efforts of the other instruments of national power is to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment and provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.These tasks are conducted before, during or after conflict in support of Unified Land Operations across the range of military operations guided by Mission CommandThe concept of unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability tasks in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution.
6 ADP and ADRP 3-07, Stability To do this the Army conducts the primary stability tasks integrated into the joint stability functions and theUSG stability sectors to achieve the endstate conditions …To do this the Army conducts the primary stability tasks integrated into the joint stability functions and the US Government stability sectors to achieve the endstate conditions.Five broad conditions describe the desired end state of successful stability tasks conducted during unified land operations. In turn, a series of objectives link the execution of tactical tasks to these end state conditions. Commanders base all these conditions on local norms rather than external norms. However, commanders avoid implementing activities in support of these conditions until they identify and prioritize the local sources of instability.These conditions provide the underpinnings for strategic, whole-of-government planning as well as serve as a focal point for integrating operational- and tactical-level tasks. The end state conditions are flexible and adaptive enough to support activities across the range of military operations but rely on concrete principles and fundamentals in application. The end state conditions are— A safe and secure environment. Established rule of law. Social well-being. Stable governance. A sustainable economyThese operations must be founded in the stability principles ofConflict TransformationUnity of EffortLegitimacy and Host Nation OwnershipBuilding Partner CapacityThese operations must be founded in the stability principles ofConflict Unity of Effort Legitimacy and Building PartnerTransformation Host Nation CapacityOwnership
7 Stability Principles Addresses the Drivers of Conflict and Instability Conflict TransformationAddresses the Drivers of Conflict and InstabilityUnity of EffortProduces Unified ActionLegitimacy and Host Nation OwnershipUnderpins the Mission, and Host NationBuilding Partner CapacityStrengthens the Host NationStability tasks are based on principles that lay the foundation for long-term stability:Conflict transformation:This focuses on converting the dynamics of conflict into processes for constructive, positive change. The process of conflict transformation reduces the means and motivations for violent conflict while developing more viable, peaceful alternatives for the competitive pursuit of political and socioeconomic aspirations.United of Effort:Success in stability tasks requires all actors to work toward a common goal. Military operations typically demand unity of command, challenging military and civilian leaders to forge unity of effort or unity of purpose among the diverse array of actors involved in a stability operationEffective civilian-military teaming starts with the development of shared goals, aims, and objectives—a unity of purpose—that lead to a relationship of shared trust and a unity of effort becomes possible.A whole-of-government approach integrates the collaborative efforts of the departments and agencies of the USG to achieve unity of effort toward a shared goal.A comprehensive approach integrates the cooperative efforts of the departments and agencies of the USG, partners, and private sector entities to achieve unity of effort toward a shared goal. A comprehensive approach builds from the cooperative spirit of unity of effort.Legitimacy and Host Nation Ownership:Legitimacy is a condition based upon the perception by specific audiences of the legality, morality, or rightness of a set of actions, and of the propriety of the authority of the individuals or organizations in taking them. Legitimacy is central to stability tasks and has two key aspects, legitimacy and authority that the host-nation government can exercise, and the legitimacy of the operation.Ultimate responsibility for stability rests with host-nation ownership. Commanders must clearly respect the views and interpretations of the host nation regarding what it perceives the stability solution should look like. The host nation takes ownership based on its perception of threats and its broader security needs. Stability activities nest within existing host-nation social, political, and economic institutions and structuresBuilding Partner Capacity:Building partner capacity is the outcome of comprehensive interorganizational activities, programs, and engagements that enhance the ability of partners for security, rule of law, essential services, governance, economic development, and other critical government functions. Army forces support host-nation ownership when planning and implementing capacity building as part of a comprehensive approach. Unified action to enhance the ability of partners for security, rule of law, essential services, governance, economic development and other critical government functions exemplifies building partner capacity.
8 Stability Framework FOSTERING SUSTAINABILITY TRANSFORMATION INITIAL FAILEDFAILINGRECOVERINGVIOLENT CONFLICTNORMALIZATIONFOSTERINGSUSTAINABILITYTRANSFORMATIONINITIALRESPONSEArmy forces engage taking the stability framework into consideration.The stability framework refers to the range of failed, failing, and recovering statesStates rarely travel the same pathway to failure, nor do they follow a set formula to recovery. The basic construct that serves as the backdrop for stability operations is based on the framework for fragile states established by USAID and uses the same engagement logic adopted by DOS in the Post-Conflict ETM. This allows us to share a common frame of reference based on the spectrum of conflict – used by the Army as a paradigm for conflict transformation – that defines military intervention activities across a wide spectrum of engagement.When applied, the stability framework helps commanders identify the types and ranges of tasks performed in the phases and identify lead responsibilities and priorities. The framework is not linear in that forces can perform tasks concurrently. Military operations conducted across this framework vary in size, purpose, and combat intensity.The activities that define stability operations occur across this spectrum, although intervention can take place at any point along that spectrum. These activities can include the initial response efforts that characterize stabilization of the security environment and the humanitarian situation; the transformational activities that reflect the reconstruction of infrastructure and institutions, the establishment of transitional governance, and the reestablishment of rule of law; and those activities in fostering sustainability that represent long-term development and economic recovery.STABILITY TASKSStability tasks are conducted as part of operations outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.
9 End State Conditions Unified Land Operations Offense Tasks Defense TasksStability TasksEndstate ConditionsEstablished Rule of LawSafe and Secure EnvironmentSocial Well-BeingStable GovernanceSustainable EconomyPopulation has the freedom to pursue daily activities without fearAll individuals and Institutionsare accountable to the lawPopulation believes its basic human needs are metand people coexist peacefullyWhen the Army does engage, it must consider what are the end states that it is focused upon.Five broad conditions describe the desired end state of successful stability tasks conducted during unified land operations. In turn, a series of objectives link the execution of tactical tasks to these end state conditions. Commanders base all these conditions on local norms rather than external norms. However, commanders avoid implementing activities in support of these conditions until they identify and prioritize the local sources of instability.These conditions provide the underpinnings for strategic, whole-of-government planning as well as serve as a focal point for integrating operational- and tactical-level tasks. The end state conditions are flexible and adaptive enough to support activities across the range of military operations but rely on concrete principles and fundamentals in application. The end state conditions are— A safe and secure environment.A safe and secure environment is one in which the population has the freedom to pursue daily activities without fear of politically motivated, persistent, or large-scale violence Established rule of law.Established rule of law refers to the condition in which all individuals and institutions, public and private, and the state itself are accountable to the law. Perceived inequalities in the administration of the law, and real or apparent injustices, trigger instability Social well-being.Social well-being is the condition in which the population believes its basic human needs are met and people coexist peacefully. Examples include equal access to and delivery of basic needs services (water, food, shelter, and health services), the provision of primary and secondary education, the return or resettlement of those displaced by violent conflict, and the restoration of social fabric and community life. Stable governance.Governance is the state’s ability to serve the citizens through the rules, processes, and behavior by which interests are articulated, resources are managed, and power is exercised in a society. Such interests include the representative participatory decisionmaking processes typically guaranteed under inclusive, constitutional authority. Stable governance refers to a condition where the state has a sustainable political structure that permits the peaceful resolution of internal contests for power, government officials are held accountable, popular participation is guaranteed, and the population views the state as A sustainable economyA sustainable economy is one in which the population can pursue opportunities for livelihoods within a predictable system of economic governance bound by law. It is characterized by active competition policies, rule of law, rules that encourage trade and investment, and sound fiscal and monetary policies. This economy is distinguished by market-based macroeconomic stability, control over the illicit economy and economic-based threats to the peace, development of a market economy, and employment. This end state includes the existence of a functioning infrastructure.State’s ability to serve the citizensthrough rules, processes, and behaviorand is held accountablePopulation can pursue opportunities for livelihoods withina predictable system of economic governance bound by law
10 Sectors and Functions Unified Land Operations Offense Tasks Defense TasksStability TasksEndstate ConditionsJoint Stability FunctionsStability SectorsEstablish Civil ControlRule of LawJustice and ReconciliationEstablished Rule of LawEstablish Civil SecuritySecuritySafe and Secure EnvironmentRestore Essential ServicesHumanitarian Assistance and Social Well-BeingSocial Well-BeingSupport to GovernanceSupport to GovernanceGovernance /ParticipationStable GovernanceSupport to Economic and Infrastructure DevelopmentEconomic Stabilization and InfrastructureSustainable EconomyPrimary Stability TasksTo achieve these end states, military forces and civilians have developed series of tasks. The basic military and civilian tasks taken together create an approach that forms the basis for developing lines of effort. The lines of effort underpin an integrated approach to stability tasks based on unity of effort. The approach ensures that the efforts of military forces are integral to broader stabilization activitiesThe Department of State (DOS) is designated to coordinate USG efforts in stability operations. To that end, the DOS developed a detailed matrix of stability-focused, essential tasks in support of the stability sectors. This matrix is an evolving interagency document enabling planners to identify specific requirements to support conflict transformation. It serves as a detailed planning tool and applies across the range of military operations. However, the matrix is designed as a starting point to help frame analysis of a stabilization and reconstruction activity, not as a checklist or as a comprehensive analysis tool.Stability operations is an overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief (JP 3-0). Joint doctrine has established five joint stability functions. These distinct, yet interrelated, military tasks include the five primary Army stability tasks. The joint functions are security, humanitarian assistance, economic stabilization and infrastructure, rule of law, and governance and participationArmy units conduct five primary stability tasks. These tasks support efforts that encompass both military and nonmilitary efforts generally required to achieve stability. These tasks are similar to and nested with the joint functions and DOS stability sectors. Taken together, they provide a base for linking the execution of activities among the instruments of national and international power as part of unified action.
11 Army Primary Stability Tasks Unified Land OperationsOffense TasksDefense TasksStability TasksEndstate ConditionsJoint Stability FunctionsStability SectorsEstablish Civil ControlRule of LawJustice and ReconciliationEstablished Rule of LawEstablish Civil SecuritySecuritySafe and Secure EnvironmentRestore Essential ServicesHumanitarian Assistance and Social Well-BeingSocial Well-BeingSupport to GovernanceSupport to GovernanceGovernance /ParticipationStable GovernanceSupport to Economic and Infrastructure DevelopmentEconomic Stabilization and InfrastructureSustainable EconomyPrimary Stability TasksGenerally, the responsibility for providing for the basic needs of the people rests with the host-nation government or designated civil authorities, agencies, and organizations. When not possible, military forces provide minimum levels of civil security and restore essential services to the local populace until a civil authority or the host nation is able. These essential services provide for minimal levels of security, food, water, shelter, and medical treatment. Commanders at all levels assess resources available against the mission to determine how best to conduct these minimum-essential stability tasks and what risks they can acceptThe primary stability tasks are fundamental to unified land operations and are conducted across the range of military operations. Commanders can execute the tasks before, during, or after conflict to support a legitimate host-nation government, to assist a fragile state, or in the absence of a functioning civil authorityNone of these primary tasks is performed in isolation. At the operational level, the primary stability tasks serve as lines of effort or simply as a guide to action, ensuring broader unity of effort across the stability sectors. In any operation, the primary stability tasks—and the subordinate tasks included in each area—integrate with offensive and defensive tasks in unified land operationsEstablishing civil security involves providing for the safety of the host nation and its population, including protection from internal and external threats. Establishing civil security provides needed space for host-nation and civil agencies and organizations to work toward sustained peace. The host nation cannot achieve security solely through the presence of military forces or just by killing or capturing enemies. The objective aims not to defeat or destroy an enemy but to neutralize threats to a stable society to better establish or reestablish competent host-nation security forces. In the absence of civil capability to establish a safe and secure environment, Army forces often assume greater responsibility for security tasks. Ultimately, Army forces transition these tasks to the host nation once it establishes its capabilities.Establishing civil control supports efforts to institute rule of law and stable, effective governance. Civil control relates to public order—the domain of the police and other law enforcement agencies, courts, prosecution services, and prisons (known as the Rule of Law sector). Public disorder significantly threatens law and order and therefore the overall effort to establish a secure, stable peace. In the absence of civil capacity, Army forces often take a more active role to establish civil control. Civil control supports a holistic approach to strengthening rule of law.The restoration of essential services in a fragile environment is essential toward achieving stability. The basic functions of local governance stop during conflict and other disasters. Initially, military forces lead efforts to establish or restore the most basic civil services: the essential food, water, shelter, and medical support necessary to sustain the population until forces restore local civil services. Military forces follow the lead of other USG agencies, particularly United States Agency for International Development, in the long restoration of essential services. In many cases, local or international development and humanitarian organizations are already established in theater and can fulfill this function.Support to governance When a legitimate and functional host-nation government exists, military forces operating to support the state have a limited role. However, if the host-nation government cannot adequately perform its basic civil functions—whatever the reason—some degree of military support to governance may be necessary. Military efforts to support governance focus on restoring public administration and resuming public services. These services include but are not limited to supporting transitional administration if established, supporting the development of local governance, supporting anticorruption initiatives, and supporting elections.Military efforts to support the economic sector are critical to sustainable economic development. The economic viability of a host nation often exhibits stress and ultimately fractures as conflict, disaster, and internal strife overwhelms the government. Signs of economic stress include rapid increases in inflation, uncontrolled escalation of public debt, and a general decline in the host nation’s ability to provide for the well-being of its people. Economic problems inextricably connect to governance and security concerns. As one institution begins to fail, others likely follow
12 Unique Considerations Military role in prevention activitiesSecurity cooperation.Peace operations.Transitions.Security sector reform.Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.Foreign humanitarian assistance.Foreign internal defense.CounterinsurgencyInform and influence activities in stability.Protection of civilians.Lethal and nonlethal actions.Intelligence.Some types of operations have a greater focus on stability tasks than others. ADRP 3-07 and FM 3-07 discuss these operations further. In many instances, Army forces concentrate on stability. ADRP 3-07 and FM 3-07 highlight the following functions, tasks, missions, and operationsMilitary role in prevention activities.Stability is at the foundation of prevention efforts. Military preventative activities often support U.S. Government diplomatic efforts before, during, or after a crisisPrevention activities include military engagement and security cooperation efforts designed to reform a country’s security sector and deployment of forces designed to prevent a dispute or contain it from escalating to hostilitiesSecurity cooperation.Security cooperation is all Department of Defense interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific United States security interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and provide United States forces with peacetime and contingency access to a host nationIt develops friendly, partner and allied military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations.It builds partnership capacity and enhance or establish relationships with regional national militaries that promote bilateral and coalition interoperability, strategic access, and regional stability.Peace operations.Peace operations is a broad term that encompasses multiagency and multinational crisis response and limited contingency operations involving all instruments of national power with military missions to contain conflict, redress the peace, and shape the environment to support reconciliation and rebuilding and facilitate the transition to legitimate governance.Transitions.Stability tasks include transitions of authority and control among military forces, civilian agencies and organizations, and the host nation.Security sector reform.Security sector reform (SSR) is an umbrella term that discusses reforming the security of an area. SSR includes integrated activities in support of defense and armed forces reform; civilian management and oversight; justice, police, corrections, and intelligence reform; national security planning and strategy support; border management; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration; or reduction of armed violence. In SSR, the Army primarily supports reforming, restructuring, or re-establishing the armed forces and the defense sector across the range of military of operations. Paragraphs 3-33 through 3-80 further discuss security sector reformDisarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.DDR efforts aim to increase the stability of the security environment by disarming and demobilizing armed forces and by helping return former combatants to civilian life.The DDR program is a critical component of peace and restoration processes and is accounted for in initial planning. UN Studies indicate this is a key component of success Foreign humanitarian assistance.Instability may result from man-made or natural disasters. Such disasters often quickly overwhelm a host-nation’s and other organizations’ abilities to provide essential services and security to its citizens. This instability may bring the legitimacy of the host-nation government into question and potentially lead to larger issues, conflict, and regional instability. When such disasters threaten to be of sufficient severity and magnitude, United States foreign disaster relief to a foreign country, foreign persons, or intergovernmental organizations may be requiredForeign internal defense.It is participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated organization to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, insurgency, terrorism, and other threats to its securityCounterinsurgencyCounterinsurgency consists of comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to defeat an insurgency and to address any core grievancesIn the conduct of stability tasks, commanders should also consider the following activities:Inform and influence activities in stability.Successfully executing essential stability tasks depends on informing the local populace and influencing attitudes. Although more tangible objectives mark the success of a stability operation, the final measure of success or failure often rests with the perceptions of the people. Military forces must go beyond defeating the enemy. They must secure the trust and confidence of the population. This requires a mastery of inform and influence activitiesProtection of civilians.Protection of civilians has become an important military consideration in land operations that commanders must account for in planning and execution.An underlying objective for many of the supporting tasks is to protect civilians from threats not necessarily related to conflictSometimes other human security threats may be paramount. The population is often the center of gravity in unified land operations dominated by stability activities, and the population’s support in part relates to the host nation’s or multinational forces’ abilities to provide protection from adversariesLethal and nonlethal actions.An inherent, complementary relationship exists between using lethal force and applying military capabilities for nonlethal purposes. Though each situation requires a different mix of violence and constraint, lethal and nonlethal actions used together complement each other and create dilemmas for opponents. Lethal actions enable accomplishing offensive and defensive tasks. However, nonlethal actions also contribute to operations, regardless of which element dominates. Finding ways to accomplish the mission with an appropriate mix of lethal and nonlethal force remains an important consideration for every commander.Intelligence.Intelligence is a key component of successful stability tasks and missions.However, if forces conduct the tasks in a sovereign nation, then commanders have important considerations such as bilateral agreements, host-nation coordination, potential limitations and restrictions on the exchange of information and intelligence, restrictions on the ability of intelligence to operate within the host nation, and the other complexities inherent in operations characterized by stability tasks. (ADRP 2-0 has more details.
13 Planning Considerations Recognize complexity.Balance resources, capabilities, and activities.Recognize planning horizons.Avoid planning pitfallsOperations focused on maintaining or reestablishing stability are often protracted and involve numerous military and civilian organizations. The multifaceted drivers of instability are difficult to identify. In addition to the fundamentals of planning described in ADP 5-0, when planning for stability commanders and staffsComplexity:Military operations are conducted in operational environments that are both complex and ever changing. Complexity describes situations with many parts and subparts (structural complexity) as well as the behaviors and resulting relationships among those parts and subparts (interactive complexity).The Army design methodology is a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe unfamiliar problems and approaches to solving them (ADP 5-0).Balance resources, capabilities, and activities: Operations dominated by stability increasingly involve multilateral and diverse actors and stakeholders. Outside actors bring a diverse resources and capabilities to the effort. Effective planning accounts for these capabilities and activities. In some cases, these actors achieve cooperation towards common goals or even share resources. In other cases, such cooperation is not practical given divergent goals and objectives. Effective commanders understand the multiple actors and their potential (or inability) for cooperation and mutual support. This understanding helps focus resources or even identify areas in which to apply resources to augment other activities that support stabilization objectives.Recognize Planning Horizons:Another fundamental tension in planning for operations emphasizing stability tasks is the tension between short-term needs and long-term objectives. Immediate security or humanitarian concerns can create a need for short-term solutions with negative impacts for longer-term objectives, such as in establishing stable governance or a sustainable economy. Effective planning addresses these tensions.Avoid Planning Pitfalls:The first pitfall consists of attempting to forecast and dictate events too far into the futureThe second pitfall consists of trying to plan in too much detail.The third pitfall consists of using planning as a scripting process that tries to prescribe the course of events with precision.The fourth pitfall is the danger of institutionalizing rigid planning methods that lead to inflexible or overly structured thinking
14 The application of lethal combat power to destroy enemy capabilities Planning MechanismsDESTRUCTIONThe application of lethal combat power to destroy enemy capabilitiesDISLOCATIONEmployment of forces to obtain significant positional advantage, rendering the enemy’s dispositions less valuable, perhaps even irrelevantISOLATIONDenial of an adversary access to capabilities that enable his exercise of coercion, influence, potential advantage, and freedom of actionDISINTEGRATIONExploitation and the integration of dislocating and destructive effects to shatter the coherence of enemy forcesDEFEATSTABILITYCOMPELActual or threatened force to establish control and dominance; effect behavioral change; and enforce compliance with mandates, agreements, or civil authorityINFLUENCEImposition of will on the situation through information operations, presence, and conduct to effect behavioral change through nonlethal meansCONTROLImposition of civil order in accordance with the objectives of the operationSUPPORTAbility of the force to establish, reinforce, or set the conditions necessary for the other instruments of national power to function effectivelyThe operational approach conceptualizes the commander’s visualization for establishing the conditions that define the desired end state. Operations conducted among the people accept military interaction with the local populace as part of the mission. In those operations, the most effective operational approach achieves decisive results through combinations of stability and defeat mechanisms. While the stability mechanisms leverage the constructive capabilities inherent to combat power, the defeat mechanisms allow the commander to focus the coercive capabilities of the force to provide security and public order and safety for the local populaceStability and defeat mechanisms complement planning by providing focus in framing complex problems. They offer the conceptual means to solve problems. By combining mechanisms when conducting stability tasks, commanders can effectively address the human dimension of the problem while acting to reduce the security threat. Therefore, one element of the force can focus on reestablishing security and control while another element can address the immediate humanitarian needs of the populace. Thus, early and deliberate combinations of stability and defeat mechanisms are vital to success, especially in environments where actors may face active opposition
15 CONCLUSIONContrary to popular belief, the military history of the United States is one characterized by operations where the majority of the effort consisted of stability tasks, interrupted by distinct episodes of major combat.In the future, as in the past, leaders will be called upon to conduct missions, tasks, and activities across the range of military operations to establish conditions for long-term stability.The stability series of manuals provide the Army leaders with the understanding and the tools to succeed.