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1 2 3 4 5 6 On your warm up, identify these countries and bodies of water without your notes 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2 3 4 5 6 On your warm up, identify these countries and bodies of water without your notes 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 On your warm up, identify these countries and bodies of water without your notes

2 Israel Jordan Lebanon Syria Turkey Iraq Saudi Arabia Yemen Oman UAE Qatar Kuwait Iran Afghanistan Cyprus Bahrain Arabian Peninsula Anatolian Peninsula Sinai Peninsula Plateau of Persian Gulf Gulf of Oman Red Sea Dead Sea Arabian Sea Caspian Sea Black Sea Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

3 Human Geography of the Middle East


5 The Arabian Peninsula Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Because of the location, they are a crossroad for culture and trade.

6 Languages of the Middle East 4 major language groups in the Middle East. – Arabic (1 st ), Turkish (Turkey), Persian (2 nd ), Hebrew (Israel) – English as the main second language among the middle and upper classes.

7 Religion Religion is the major cultural and religious influence in this region.

8 Religions Judaism: – Concentrated in Israel – Established more than 3,200 years ago – Oldest monotheistic religion – Basic laws & teachings come from Torah (Holy book) – Place of worship = Synagogue Christianity: – Evolved from the teachings of Judaism (2,000 yrs. ago) – Monotheistic – Based on teachings of Jesus Christ (Son of God to Christians) – Holy Book Bible – Place of worship= Church Islam: – Based on teachings of Prophet Muhammad – Monotheistic – God is Allah (Arabic) – Close ties to Judaism and Christianity – Holy Book = Quran – Place of worship= Mosque – 2 major divisions: Sunni and Shiite

9 When Islam started, the religion united the people of the Arabian Peninsula in a way that had not been done previously.



12 Islam vs. Christianity - What are the major differences? Muslims and Christians have vastly different views on major points of ideology and theology. First and foremost are the differing perceptions of Jesus, the Christ. Islam readily accepts that Jesus existed and that he was born of the Virgin Mary. Islam teaches that Jesus was merely another prophet, equal to and following in the line of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses. Muslims believe that Muhammad is the final messenger, superior to all previous prophets, the ultimate. Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of the Living God, which makes Him equal to God. Secondly, Islam refutes the idea that Jesus Christ was crucified on the cross. They believe that God spared his messenger from such a shameful death and later took him up to himself. For Christians, the death of Jesus Christ on the cross is the focal point of all belief. The religion of Islam has the Qur'an as the source of truth and believe that it is the only true, reliable and pure scriptures. Finally, Muslims do not hold to any assurance of salvation. They do not feel that is was even necessary for Jesus to pay for our sins. The belief that they hold is that every man must bear and pay for his or her own sins; for Jesus to be punished and responsible for our sins would be unjust in their eyes. In your own words, summarize two main differences between the religions

13 The Five Pillars of Islam – requires certain religious duties of all Muslims. Faith All believers must testify to the following statement of faith: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Prayer Five times a day, Muslims face toward the holy city of Mecca to pray. They may do this at a place of worship called a mosque or wherever they find themselves at the prayer times. Charity (Alms giving) Muslims believe they have a responsibility to support the less fortunate by giving money for that purpose. Fasting During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink anything between sunrise and sunset. This action reminds Muslims that there are things in life more important than eating. It is also a sign of self-control and humility. Pilgrimage (hajj) All able Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca at least once during their lifetime.

14 A Human Perspective… Two million people pour into the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca for a few weeks each year. They come from all over the world. In the past, the trip to Mecca involved a difficult journey across oceans and over miles of desert. Today, pilgrims arrive on airplanes. These people are fulfilling the Islamic religious duty of hajj, which is a pilgrimage to the holiest city of IslamMecca. For five or more days, all are dressed in simple white garments and all perform special activities, rituals, and ceremonies. It is a powerful example of spiritual devotion by the followers of one of the three major religions that claim a home in Southwest Asia.

15 Pilgrimage to Mecca…

16 Ramadan Fasting in the month of Ramadan is another duty that shapes the lives of Muslims. During this month, adult Muslims do not eat or drink from before dawn until sunset. Fasting is a way of reminding Muslims of the spiritual part of their lives. After sunset, Muslims may eat a light meal of lentil or bean soup, a few dates, yogurt, and milky tea. A festival, Id al- Fitr, marks the end of Ramadan. New clothes, gifts, and elaborate dinners, along with acts of charity, are part of the celebration. Ramadan began on Tuesday, July 9, 2013 and ended on Wednesday, August 7, 2013

17 Sunni vs. Shiite Sunnah Sunnis (80-90%) Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet's companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job. This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad's close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of the Islamic nation. The word "Sunni" in Arabic comes from a word meaning "one who follows the traditions of the Prophet.

18 Shia Shiites (10-20%) On the other hand, some Muslims share the belief that leadership should have stayed within the Prophet's own family, among those specifically appointed by him, or among Imams appointed by God Himself. The Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad's death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali bin Abu Talib. Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself. The word "Shia" in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical "Shia-t-Ali," or "the Party of Ali." They are also known as followers of "Ahl-al-Bayt" or "People of the Household" (of the Prophet).

19 The difference between Sunni and Shia is…_________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

20 Judaism: History Wailing Wall- Western Wall, holy site, last remaining portion of the temple, most sacred Jewish site. In Jerusalem, Israel. Jerusalem is divided into religious quarters. Control over the city has been fought for since the beginning of religion

21 Christianity: Beliefs and Practices Communion shows participation in the body of Christ. The bread represents his body, the juice or wine represents his blood. Baptism is used to represent the washing away of sins. Theory of why most people do it as babies?

22 Government and Religion The governments of lands controlled by Muslims were theocratic. Theocracy means religious leaders control the government. – Rulers relied on religious law and consulted with religious scholars on running the country.

23 Theocracy in the Middle East: Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Mauritania are Islamic theocracies. The Vatican City is the only Christian theocracy, although its laws are still limited to the secular laws of Italy. Most theocracies are usually authoritarian in nature and often jail religious and political dissidents. Most of the laws in these countries are loosely based on Sharia, or the Islamic law. Homosexuality is punishable by death in these countries (with the exception of Pakistan, Malaysia, and Afghanistan), which is dictated based on Sharia law, which also dictates dress codes and women's roles. All of the said Islamic countries except Iran and Saudi Arabia have some form of freedom of religion, although it is very limited by western standards. Iran and Saudi Arabia are very strict in their Islamic laws, while others are a bit looser yet still socially repressive and conservative by western standards. Iran and Vatican are the only theocracies that are ruled by a religious figure (the Grand Ayatollah and the Pope, respectfully). The rest are either ruled by an absolute king (i.e. Saudi Arabia), a President (i.e. Sudan), a Prime Minister, or both (i.e. Pakistan). The case of Iran is unusual; it is not a democracy since the country often silences and jails political and religious opponents, but it is not really a dictatorship. It is considered to be an oligarchic republic ruled by a group of clerics and the Grand Ayatollah.

24 Oil Dominates the Economy The principal resource in the economy of the Arabian Peninsula is oil. Large increases in oil prices allow the oil-producing nations to funnel money into development of other parts of their economies, especially water development projects.

25 OPEC In 1960, a group of oil-producing nations, including Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, established an organization to coordinate policies on selling petroleum products. The group is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, also known as OPEC. The purpose of OPEC is to help members control worldwide oil prices and production. OPEC is a powerful force in international trade. Other Southwest Asian members include Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, and Iraq.

26 Modern Arabic Life Changes on the Arabian Peninsula during the 20th century were dramatic. Abandoned towns and villages for city life (urbanization) Emphasis on modernizing – Use of Western technology and machines have disrupted traditional ways of life. – Camels OUT cars and cars IN


28 Modern Arabic Life Despite its rapid modernization, some aspects of Muslim culture have remained the same for centuries. – Womens clothing: cover their heads, hair, and sometimes faces with a scarf or veil called a hijab

29 Quote the holy book! (Qur'an: Chapter 24an-Nur (the Light),, Verses 30-31) says And tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to [those relatives who fall within bounds of close relationship explained in the Quran]... This is a command to Muslim men that they should not lustfully look at women (other than their own wives); and in order to prevent any possibility of temptation, they are required to cast their glances downwards. It is also a command to Muslim Women to lower their eyes...

30 Fashion, tradition, or law?

31 Eastern Mediterranean

32 A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE On September 28, 2000, riots broke out in the city of Jerusalem. The cause was a visit by an Israeli political leader to a Jewish holy place at a location on the Temple Mount. Muslims also have a holy place on the Temple Mount. They viewed the visit by the Israeli leader as disrespectful to Muslims. Hundreds of people died in the civil unrest that followed. To understand why a simple visit to a holy place would cause such problems, it is necessary to understand the deep-seated hostility Arabs and Jews feel for each other. They have an enormous disagreement over the control of the city of Jerusalem and of the land called the Occupied Territories. In fact, the relations between Arabs and Jews affect the entire region of the Eastern Mediterranean.

33 Religious Holy Places All three claim Jerusalem as a holy city. The City of Jerusalem, which covers 42 square miles, has Jewish, Christian, and Muslim sections. Followers of all three religions come to the Old City to visit locations with strong spiritual meaning.

34 Religious Sites in Jerusalem JEWISH: King Solomon built the First Temple; only piece still standing is the Western Wall MUSLIM: Dome of the Rock, houses the spot where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad rose into heaven. CHRISTIAN: sacred location of the crucifixion of Jesus There is a great deal of political tension among nations in this subregion. The Crusades

35 Palestinian Authority Territory is the black and white lines…The West Bank and Gaza Strip Golan Heights is a territory of Syria




39 Modernizing Economies Have great potential for development. – good climate for producing citrus crops – many places for tourists to visit. They are well located for connections to international markets Lack infrastructure

40 Countries in this region have marketplace (bazaar) economies and cannot compete with world markets

41 Modern Life A curious blend of old and new – Some restaurants have separate men and women sections Muslim Arabs make up the majority of population Lebanon has been a refuge for both Muslims and Christians.

42 The Northeast

43 A human perspective… On March 16, 1988, Iraqi Air Force planes released poisonous gases over the Kurdish town of Halabja, Iraq. An estimated 5,000 Kurds, an ethnic group in the Middle East, died from the chemical weapons attack. The Kurdish people have occupied the lands they call Kurdistan for thousands of years. In the modern world, those lands are located in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. For most of the 20 th century, these three nations disagreed with the Kurds over control of these lands. In fact, clashes over land have been the focus of much unrest in the northeastern part of this region.

44 Clashes over Land Kurds have been called a stateless nation – Were promised a homeland after WWI but never received it

45 A Blend of Cultures The northern part of this region is mostly Muslim, but only Iraq is Arabic in cultural life.

46 Many ethnic groups in this region – Turks, Kurds, and Persians Languages of this region include – Turkish, Farsi (Persian), and Arabic Yellow area is where Farsi is spoken>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Though most of the groups are Islamic, tensions exist.

47 Can you speak Farsi?

48 Turkish Dialects…look how many! Can you speak Turkish?

49 Modern and Traditional Life Facing internal struggles still to this day – Some want a more modern lifestyle and other want to keep more traditional ways (very apparent in Afghanistan) – Fundamentalist Muslim- want a very traditional and strict interpretation of Islamic law

50 Clashes over Land Iraq and Iran fought a war from 1980 and 1990, over control of oil fields. 1990–1991, Iraq invaded Kuwait, starting the Persian Gulf War. The United States and 32 other nations fought to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait and keep oil fields open.

51 1.What language is dominant in Middle East? 2.List the 3 monotheistic religions from oldest to newest. 3.Explain the views on prophets between the 3 religions. 4.What is the Muslim holy book? 5.What is the difference between Sunni and Shia? 6.What is the term for religion controlling government? 7.What resource makes the most money? 8.What resource is the most important?

52 War on Terror Within a month of the attacks of 9/11/01 the U.S. and their allies invaded Afghanistan, who was thought to be hiding the people responsible for the terrorist attacks. In 2003, fear for national security prompted the United States to declare war on Iraq and its leader, Saddam Hussein.

53 Overthrow of the Taliban Taliban – Fundamentalist Muslim political group protecting Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda terrorist network in Afghanistan March 2002, the Taliban was removed from power May 2011, Osama bin Laden killed 11/05/02/exp.sot.obama.bin.laden.cnn 11/05/02/exp.sot.obama.bin.laden.cnn


55 Overthrow of Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein: Iraqi dictator believed to be continuing to develop and expand a weapons of mass destruction program Operation Iraqi Freedom – March 2003 to stop Husseins ability to wage mass war or aid terrorists – Major combat technically ended May 1, 2003 started to work toward democracy in Iraq

56 Saddam Hussein shortly after capture by American forces, and after being shaved to confirm his identity Saddam Hussein was captured by American forces in December of 2003 Charged and put on trial by the interim Iraqi government for crimes against humanity Specific charges included the murder of 148 people, torture of women and children and the illegal arrest of 399 others. Found guilty and sentenced to death in Nov 2006, hanged a month later in Dec 2006










66 Middle East

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