Presentation on theme: "HISTORY OF MODERN SOUTHWEST ASIA"— Presentation transcript:
1 HISTORY OF MODERN SOUTHWEST ASIA SS7H2 – Analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia leading to the 21st centuryHISTORY OF MODERN SOUTHWEST ASIA
2 ELEMENTSExplain how European partitioning in the Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflictExplain the historical reasons for the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in EuropeDescribe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle EastExplain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq
3 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONSHow did European portioning in Southwest Asia after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire lead to a regional conflict?How does anti-Semitism, the Holocaust, and Zionism relate to the establishment of the modern state of Israel?How are land and religion reasons for continuing conflicts in Southwest Asia (Middle East)?What are factors that led to the U.S. participation in the Persian Gulf Conflict and the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?
4 THE BREAKUP OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE The Ottoman Empire was one of the most successful empires in the 16th century.After the death of King Suleyman, the empire would experience a decline and then an eventual fallAfter World War I, in which the empire would lose the war, the empire would be splitFrance took over Syria and Lebanon, Great Britain would take Palestine and Iraq
5 CONFLICTS OVER LANDBecause of France and Britain taking over land, major conflict has been an ongoing problemBritain and France drew boundary lines which ignored cultural and religious issuesIraq had conflicts between Sunni and Shia Muslims who fight for powerKurds were split up between Turkey, Iraq and IranThese countries fight to remove Kurds
6 THE SAGA OF LAND AND RELIGION IN SOUTHWEST ASIA LAND CONFLICTSRELIGIOUS CONFLICTSIraq and Iran have fought for land barriers since 1980Was called the Iraq-Iran WarMajor reason was for oilIraq would attack Kuwait in because of their thought Kuwait betrayed themConflict was called the Persian Gulf WarPalestine denied Israel independence because of its Jewish originsIsrael fought Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt in the War of Independence in 1948Israel continues to face conflicts from HezbollahShiite organization which means “Party of God”Shia and Sunni Muslims continue to fight in Iraq over powerIraq-Iran War also fought for religious rights between Sunnis in Iraq and Shiites in Iran
8 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ISRAEL Israel as it’s own country was established in After Britain captured Palestine during WWI, the land was to be divided between Jews and Arabs. The United Nations decided that the Jews who lived in Palestine should have their own state. After conflict between Jews and Arabs continued, the U.N. voted to end British rule in Palestine and give the Jewish people their own state, which would become Israel
9 JEWISH RELIGIOUS CONNECTIONS TO ISRAEL As far back as 70 years ago, the sacred places of Jews have been in the land formerly known as Palestine, including the Western Wall, which is the remains of the Second Temple of worship
10 THE HOLOCAUST AND ITS EFFECTS Over 250,000 Jewish people were placed in concentration camps during the Holocaust, part of Adolf Hitler’s “Final Solution” to rid the world of the people he felt caused the fall of Germany in World War I. Jewish people were tortured, experimented on, burned, starved and killed. In all, over 6 million were killed.After WWII, Jews wanted to enter Palestine but were blocked by the British. Britain would eventually concede and let the Jews into Palestine
12 THE GROWTH OF ANTI SEMITISM Anti-Semitism is showing prejudice against Jewish peopleBegan in Europe, with France, Russia and Austria having major issues with JewsJewish people were constantly being denied rights and privileges in European countriesJewish people would be blamed for events and issues, mainly the fall of Germany after World War I and the death of Jesus Christ
13 THE ZIONISM MOVEMENTEurope in the late 1880s wanted to press a movement called ZionismStarting a homeland for Jews in PalestineStarted to gain steam during World War I, with Britain working with the First Zionist Congress of SwitzerlandFaced backlash from Arabs and lost the support of Britain
14 THE UNITED STATES VS. SOUTHWEST ASIA – THE PERSIAN GULF WAR Iraq would invade Kuwait in Dictator Saddam Hussein wanted the oil in Kuwait and to have access to the Persian Gulf. The United Nations would intervene, but Iraq did not back down. The United States and other countries would invade to help Kuwait and eventually defeat Iraq in less than two months. Iraq was ordered by the United Nations to destroy all weapons of mass destruction
15 THE UNITED STATES VS. SOUTHWEST ASIA – SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 On September 11, 2001, a terrorist group known as al-Qaeda, led by the Taliban and Osama Bin Laden, crashed two airplanes into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and a field in Pennsylvania. Many Americans were killed and the United States declared war on Afghanistan. U.S. troops would bomb Afghanistan and destroy parts of the country looking for Bin Laden.The U.S. would defeat the Taliban and help to establish a new government in Afghanistan.Osama Bin Laden was eventually found in 2011 and killed by a covert operations team in Pakistan
17 THE UNITED STATES VS. SOUTHWEST ASIA – THE IRAQI WAR The U.S. and Britain invaded Iraq again in over fear of more WMDs in IraqThe Iraqi army was defeated after bombings and Saddam Hussein was captured in 2006 and sentenced to death for murdersIn 2005, with the help of the U.S., the Iraqi government was now democratic and had their first electionsTroops still remain in Iraq to protect from possible uprisings and to keep the country secure and safe
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