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Understanding the Unavoidable

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1 Understanding the Unavoidable
Flag of Iran Flag of Libya Islam of the Qur’an: Understanding the Unavoidable Flag of Saudi Arabia Flag of Iraq Flag of Egypt

2 INSIDE THE QUR’AN Sources Borrowed by Muhammad Infant Arabic Gospel
The Gospel of Thomas Second Targum of Esther The Glory of the Martyrs The Romance of Alexander the Great The Testament of Abraham The Gospel of Nicodemus The Old Testament The New Testament

3 Christianity Judaism Arabic Paganism Zoroastrianism
Qur’an Arabic Paganism Zoroastrianism

4 Islam: Toward a Common Understanding
Dr. David Cook Good afternoon. I am Dave Cook and my job is to help us understand broadly about Islam in terms of where they live and to bring a common understanding to terms we often hear but may not have a common understanding of as westerners.

5 Muslim Countries As of 2009, 1.6 billion people on this planet would identify themselves as Muslim. That represents about 23% of the world’s population. 62% of those live in the Asia/Pacific region, 20% in the Middle East/North Africa, 3% in Europe and .3% in the Americas. Muslims are the majority population in 49 countries and speak over 60 languages. Arabic is the most commonly spoken at 20% of Muslims. Indonesia, Pakistan, and India have the largest Muslim populations. In Europe, France and Belgium have about 10% of their population practicing Islam.

6 Key Religious Sites In Saudi Arabia
The most significant religious sites for Islam are found in Saudi Arabia, Mecca and Medina which are on the western side of the country near the Red Sea.

7 Mecca and Medina Red Sea Medina (Yathrib) Ÿ Mecca Ÿ
founded 4th cen. A.D. Ÿ 200 MILES

8 Definitions Arab Spring: This term refers to a group of protests in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, and civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and Syria. Major protests have also broken out in other countries such as Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Oman to list just a few. Mosque: A place of worship for the followers of Islam.

9 Dhimmi: This term refers to a non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia law. Linguistically, the word means "one whose responsibility has been taken." In Islamic lands, two sets of laws exist: one for Muslims and another for non-Muslims. The laws designated for Muslims are decisively advantageous over the laws for non-Muslims. An important question debated by scholars is whether the practice of dhimminitude resides in the distant past or is a problem in our current times. Bat Ye’or has noted that since the idea of dhimminitude is rooted in the Qur’an, it should be of no surprise to see it re-emerge on the current world stage. Various forms of dhimminitude now exist in Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan.

10 Dhimminitude includes the following:
The prohibition of arms. The prohibition of church bells. Restrictions concerning the renovation and restoration of homes, churches, synagogues, and temples. Inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims in regards to taxes and penal law. Requirement to wear special clothing.

11 Jihad: The word Jihad stems from the Arabic root word J-H-D, which means "strive.“ Other words derived from this root include "effort," "labor," and "fatigue.” Muslims divide Jihad into two categories: greater (inward) jihad: the mastery of the soul, to bring the soul into complete submission to Allah. lesser (outward) jihad: the mastery of the world, to bring the entire world into complete submission to Allah. Muhammad Al-Ghazali ( ), regarded as the greatest of Islamic theologians, insisted that all faithful Muslims should embrace both the greater and the lesser jihads. This is because both forms are taught at length in the Qur’an. Moderate Muslims emphasize the greater jihad. Fundamentalist Muslims emphasize both the greater and the lesser jihads.

12 Infidels: Those who have never embraced the Islamic faith.
Apostate: A Muslim who has either (a) left the Islamic faith, (b) now mixes false teachings within the Islamic faith, or (c) lives in flagrant disobedience to the Qur’an and the will of Allah. Shari’a Law: The moral code and religious law of Islam. Shari’a law has never been officially codified. Therefore various oral versions exist in the world. Common to all is: (a) the subjection of the entire world to Allah, (b) the subjection of women to men, and (c) the subjection of non-Muslims to Muslims. Imam: Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Caliph: The head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic community. Ummah: an Islamic community ruled by the Shari’ah.

13 Caliphate: the political-religious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands
and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death (A.D. 632) of the Prophet Muḥammad. Ruled by a caliph (Arabic khalīfah, “successor”), who held temporal and sometimes a degree of spiritual authority, the empire of the Caliphate grew rapidly through conquest during its first two centuries to include most of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Spain. Dynastic struggles later brought about the Caliphate’s decline, and it ceased to exist with the Mongol destruction of Baghdad in 1258. Secular/Moderate/Conservative Muslims: Secular Muslims often live in non-Muslim countries and have assimilated in many ways to the culture of that country, but might still consider themselves to be Muslim. Moderate Muslims would normally be defined as practicing Muslims who are opposed to radical or extreme views or measures, especially in politics or religion. Conservative Muslims would adhere strictly to all the laws and edicts of Islam.

14 Arab: a person of Middle Eastern descent who speaks the Arabic language: from Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Qatar, U.A.E., Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, etc. (Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Indonesia are five Muslim nations that are not Arabic). Islam: the religion of those who follow the teachings of Mohammed as found in the Koran. Muslim: an adherent to the religion of Islam.

15 Five Pillars of I S L A M S I Y A M S A L T S H A D Z A K T H A J D A

16 Organizations Considered to be Terrorist Organizations
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Hamas Fatah Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) Hezbollah (Party of God)

17 Shariah Law vs. U.S. Constitution (A few examples)
The Law- Islam Constitution Conversion from Islam Punished by death Protected under the First Amendment Theft Punished by amputation Punished by fine or imprisonment Adultery Punished by stoning Punished as a misdemeanor if punished at all Sharia law is gods law thus not changeable. The constitution is man made and can be changed. Thus sharia trumps manmade law.

18 Mohammad was a RPM leader:
Religious leader Political leader Military leader

19 “Fight those who believe not in God and in the last day, and who forbid not what God and His Apostle [Muhammad] have forbidden, and who do not practice the religion of truth from amongt those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands and be as little ones” (Q 9:29) Fight those: who believe not in Allah and in the last day [the Last Judgment] who forbid not what Allah and His Apostle [Muhammad] have forbidden, and who do not practice the religion of truth from amongst those to whom the Book [Bible] has been brought [that is, who embrace a corrupted Bible and believe that Jesus is the son of God] dhimminitude

20 Arab Springs: Middle East Countries
Syria Iraq Tunisia Lebanon Morocco Israeli border Kuwait Jordan Bahrain Western Sahara Algeria Libya Egypt Oman Saudi Arabia Mauritania Yemen Sudan

21 The many voices of Islam
Islam and Modernity The many voices of Islam

22 Context The process of industrialization, modernization, and globalization has occurred irrespective of the influence of Islam. Muslims wrestling with modernity are confronted with issues that do not have historical Islamic solutions. The crisis within Islam created through modernization has resulted in a variety of responses.

23 Types of Muslims Islamists/Fundamentalists Puritans Traditionalists
Ijtihadis Secularists African American Mystic Muslims Refugees Folk Muslims

24 Islamists/Fundamentalists
7% of Muslims Worldwide Seek to develop an Islamic socio-political Muslim society. Reject nationalism, secularism, communism and Westernization Want “Islamic” values and institutions to counter Western counterparts. Goal: Islamic state Groups: Muslim Brotherhood (Salafia), Jama’at Islami and Revolutionary Iran. Oppose: secularists, nationalists, liberals, modernists, Westernized Muslims and some puritans.

25 Puritans Want to get back to the time of Muhammed and his beliefs.
Concerned with theological matters such as ‘correct belief.’ Get ride of reverence for saints and saint-worship, magic, certain Sufi practices and any innovation (bid’ah). They are literalists. Groups: Wahhabis. Opposes: Shi’is, Mu’tazilis, Sufis, Muslim ‘orientalists’, innovators and liberal Ijtihadis.

26 Traditionalists Believe there have been no new
developments in Islam since 12th century. Follow strictly the pre-modern schools of Islamic law. Uphold solutions arrived at by pre-modern jurists and theologians. Reject reforms to and criticism of Islamic law. They dominate the traditional seminary system across the Islamic world. Groups: Most Muslims fit into this category Opposes: Anyone who calls for reform (ijtihad), modernists, neo-modernists, Western-educated Islamic scholars and ‘liberal’ Muslims.

27 Ijtihadists/Modernists
Favor re-opening of creative interpretation to find a place in the modern world. Argue for major changes in the methodology of Islamic law and reform. Islamic law needs substantial change to meet the needs of Muslims today. Traditional Islamic law is not relevant - new laws are needed for Muslims today. Groups: Modern, liberal and even ‘secular’ Muslims and some reform-minded traditionalists. Opposes: Traditionalists, Islamists and some puritans.

28 Secularists Western educated elite. Islam is a personal belief.
They value personal piety. No need for an Islamic state nor implementation of sha’riah law. Groups: Institution for the Secularization of Islamic Society. Opposes: anyone calling for an Islamic state, socio-political order or those seeking to implement a pre-modern Islamic law in society.

29 African American Islam
Two categories: Sunni – get back to religion of African Ancestors Nation of Islam – black nationalist movement which other Muslims deem “heretical”. Warith Deen Muhammad, former head of Muslim American Society (MAS) MAS operates Clara Muhammad Schools - 27 elementary, secondary, and high schools throughout the U.S. Imam Siraj Wahhaj is a prominent spokesman for Sunni African Muslims Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam

30 Mystic Muslims/ Sufis Focus on inner spiritual life in response to modernity They are in love with God Poetry and song are used to express their love Some seek mystical union with the divine Groups: International Association of Sufism, Rumi Forum, Fethullah Gulen

31 Understanding Refugees
Refugees are disenfranchised, displaced people – nothing is normal Circumstances – abused, neglected, disappointed, hopeless Trust – Broken trust in government, news agencies, ideologies, and religion

32 Folk/Popular Muslims Over 80% of Muslims Many are poor and uneducated
Use charms and amulets for protection Use Qur’an as book of magic They say the world is inhabited by jinn Support found in • Qur’an • Hadith • Superstition

33 Evaluation A global crisis has increased the stress level within the world-wide Muslim community Some of the literature is distinctly anti-Western and apologetic in nature. Many Muslims are victims of Islamic agendas. Because of the crisis in Islam, some Muslims are open to talking

34 Christian Response We need to be the loving body of Christ.
We need to receive those who are victims of Islamic violence. We need to pray for our Muslim neighbors. We need to resist reducing Islam and Muslims to an ideology we can attack. We need to share Christ with those who are willing to listen.

35 Historical review of “Abraham in the Qur’an, in the Bible, and in Archeology & Hisotry”
Dr. Rafat Amari Good afternoon. I am Dave Cook and my job is to help us understand broadly about Islam in terms of where they live and to bring a common understanding to terms we often hear but may not have a common understanding of as westerners.

36 Abraham original home Abraham was born during the third Ur Dynasty, which began around 2212 B.C. Ur in this period occupied all Mesopotamia and north Syria. Ur kingdom was terminated by the Elamites around 2004 B.C. The Quran made Abraham to struggle against a king identified in the Hadiths as Nimrod.


38 Genesis agrees with historical Frame at the time of Abraham
Genesis 14 mentioned the alliance of four kings. In a period where alliances were common. The titles of the four kings: a. Amraphel king of Shinar b. Arioch king of Ellasar c. Chedorlaomer king of Elam d. Tidal king of [ Goiim Elam became an important player in the region after Ur fell The state cities in alliances with chiefs of tribes or groups

39 The Quran claim Abraham became a worshiper of God through meditating on the stars, moon, and sun
So when the night over-shadowed him, he saw a star; said he: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: I do not love the setting ones. Then when he saw the moon rising, he said: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people. Then when he saw the sun rising, he said: Is this my Lord? Is this the greatest? So when it set, he said: O my people! surely I am clear of what you set up (with Allah). Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheists. (6:76-79)

40 The Bible alludes to the knowledge of God in Abraham family
And he said, “Come in, blessed of the LORD! Why do you stand outside since I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels?” (Genesis 24:31) No signs of paganism in the life of Rebecca

41 The Quranic narration about Abraham’s family (Surah 21:51-70
That Abraham was in struggle with his father. His father was worshiper of idols. Once Abraham destroyed all the idols except the greatest among them. When they saw that the idols were destroyed they asked and knew that Abraham did so. Abraham said that the greatest among the idols destroyed the rest of them. The people then threw Abraham into fire. But Allah said “"O Fire! be thou cool, and (a means of) safety for Abraham!" The Quranic narration is taken from Midrash Rabba

42 the Bible did not mention struggles between Abraham and his father Terah
31 Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went out together from Ur of the Chaldeans in order to enter the land of Canaan; and they went as far as Haran, and settled there. Abraham took care of his father until he died in Haran

43 The travel of Abraham to Haran then to the Land of Canaan
There were travels with itineraries between Ur, Haran, Asia Minor, North Syria, and the land of Canaan. With stations of rest. In the Mari tables, there is written a contract of rental of a Wagon , but it stated as condition not to take the Wagon to the shore of the Mediterranean Sea.


45 The Quran claim about Ishmael living in Mecca and Abraham building the Kaaba, and establishing Hajj to Mecca Ishmael lived all his life in the wilderness of Paran. The Ishmaelites lived in Sinai until the 10th century B.C Mecca was built in the 4th century A.D Western Arabia was unknown to the Mesopotamians and Egyptians The land route between Yemen and The Fertile Crescent began after the 10th century B.C. The Hajj was a pagan Arabian ritual

46 Zyed bin Amru bin Nufeil, the first to connect Abraham with Mecca, and its pagan rituals
Zyed stablished the group of Ahnaf at Mecca Mohammed was a disciple of Zyed Zyed was part of Hallah, an immoral sect that encompassed the Kaaba naked Zyed was immoral man marrying his step mother


48 The Quran is without purpose
The Quran is without purpose. Although Mohammed summarized Genesis 22, did not understand the prophetical experience of Abraham that pointed to Jesus sacrifice. And when he attained to working with him, he said: O my son! surely I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice you; consider then what you see. He said: O my father! do what you are commanded; if Allah please, you will find me of the patient ones. So when they both submitted and he threw him down upon his forehead, And We called out to him saying: O Ibrahim! You have indeed shown the truth of the vision; surely thus do We reward the doers of good: Most surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (surah As-Saaffat 37:

49 Understanding the Unavoidable
Flag of Iran Flag of Libya Islam of the Qur’an: Understanding the Unavoidable Flag of Saudi Arabia Flag of Iraq Flag of Egypt

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