Presentation on theme: "Understanding the Unavoidable"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding the Unavoidable Flag of IranFlag of LibyaIslam of the Qur’an:Understanding the UnavoidableFlag of Saudi ArabiaFlag of IraqFlag of Egypt
2INSIDE THE QUR’AN Sources Borrowed by Muhammad Infant Arabic Gospel The GospelofThomasSecondTargumofEstherThe Glory of the MartyrsThe Romance of Alexander the GreatThe Testament of AbrahamThe GospelofNicodemusThe Old TestamentThe New Testament
4Islam: Toward a Common Understanding Dr. David CookGood afternoon. I am Dave Cook and my job is to help us understand broadly about Islam in terms of where they live and to bring a common understanding to terms we often hear but may not have a common understanding of as westerners.
5Muslim CountriesAs of 2009, 1.6 billion people on this planet would identify themselves as Muslim. That represents about 23% of the world’s population. 62% of those live in the Asia/Pacific region, 20% in the Middle East/North Africa, 3% in Europe and .3% in the Americas. Muslims are the majority population in 49 countries and speak over 60 languages. Arabic is the most commonly spoken at 20% of Muslims. Indonesia, Pakistan, and India have the largest Muslim populations. In Europe, France and Belgium have about 10% of their population practicing Islam.
6Key Religious Sites In Saudi Arabia The most significant religious sites for Islam are found in Saudi Arabia, Mecca and Medina which are on the western side of the country near the Red Sea.
7Mecca and Medina Red Sea Medina (Yathrib) Ÿ Mecca Ÿ founded 4th cen. A.D.Ÿ200 MILES
8DefinitionsArab Spring: This term refers to a group of protests in the Arab worldthat began on Saturday, 18 December To date, rulers have been forced frompower in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, and civil uprisings have erupted inBahrain and Syria. Major protests have also broken out in other countries suchas Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Oman to list just a few.Mosque: A place of worship for the followers of Islam.
9Dhimmi: This term refers to a non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia law. Linguistically, the word means "one whose responsibility has been taken."In Islamic lands, two sets of laws exist: one for Muslims and another for non-Muslims. The laws designated for Muslims are decisively advantageous over the laws for non-Muslims.An important question debated by scholars is whether the practice of dhimminitude resides in the distant past or is a problem in our current times. Bat Ye’or has noted that since the idea of dhimminitude is rooted in the Qur’an, it should be of no surprise to see it re-emerge on the current world stage. Various forms of dhimminitude now exist in Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan.
10Dhimminitude includes the following: The prohibition of arms.The prohibition of church bells.Restrictions concerning the renovation and restorationof homes, churches, synagogues, and temples.Inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims in regardsto taxes and penal law.Requirement to wear special clothing.
11Jihad: The word Jihad stems from the Arabic root word J-H-D, which means "strive.“ Other words derived from this root include "effort," "labor," and "fatigue.” Muslims divide Jihad into two categories:greater (inward) jihad: the mastery of the soul, to bring the soul into complete submission to Allah.lesser (outward) jihad: the mastery of the world, to bring the entire world into complete submission to Allah.Muhammad Al-Ghazali ( ), regarded as the greatest of Islamic theologians, insisted that all faithful Muslims should embrace both the greater and the lesser jihads. This is because both forms are taught at length in the Qur’an.Moderate Muslims emphasize the greater jihad. Fundamentalist Muslims emphasize both the greater and the lesser jihads.
12Infidels: Those who have never embraced the Islamic faith. Apostate: A Muslim who has either (a) left the Islamic faith, (b) now mixes false teachings within the Islamic faith, or (c) lives in flagrant disobedience to the Qur’an and the will of Allah.Shari’a Law: The moral code and religious law of Islam. Shari’a law has never been officially codified. Therefore various oral versions exist in the world. Common to all is: (a) the subjection of the entire world to Allah, (b) the subjection of women to men, and (c) the subjection of non-Muslims to Muslims.Imam: Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community.Caliph: The head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic community.Ummah: an Islamic community ruled by the Shari’ah.
13Caliphate: the political-religious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death (A.D. 632) of theProphet Muḥammad. Ruled by a caliph (Arabic khalīfah, “successor”), who held temporaland sometimes a degree of spiritual authority, the empire of the Caliphate grew rapidlythrough conquest during its first two centuries to include most of Southwest Asia, NorthAfrica, and Spain. Dynastic struggles later brought about the Caliphate’s decline,and it ceased to exist with the Mongol destruction of Baghdad in 1258.Secular/Moderate/Conservative Muslims: Secular Muslims often live in non-Muslimcountries and have assimilated in many ways to the culture of that country, but mightstill consider themselves to be Muslim. Moderate Muslims would normally be definedas practicing Muslims who are opposed to radical or extreme views or measures,especially in politics or religion. Conservative Muslims would adhere strictly to all thelaws and edicts of Islam.
14Arab: a person of Middle Eastern descent who speaks the Arabic language: from Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Qatar, U.A.E., Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, etc. (Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Indonesia are five Muslim nations that are not Arabic).Islam: the religion of those who follow the teachings of Mohammed asfound in the Koran.Muslim: an adherent to the religion of Islam.
15Five Pillars of I S L A M S I Y A M S A L T S H A D Z A K T H A J D A CONFESIALMSGIVNPILGRMAEFASTING
16Organizations Considered to be Terrorist Organizations Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)HamasFatahPalestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)Hezbollah (Party of God)
17Shariah Law vs. U.S. Constitution (A few examples) The Law-IslamConstitutionConversion from IslamPunished by deathProtected under the First AmendmentTheftPunished by amputationPunished by fine or imprisonmentAdulteryPunished by stoningPunished as a misdemeanor if punished at allSharia law is gods law thus not changeable. The constitution is man made and can be changed. Thus sharia trumps manmade law.
18Mohammad was a RPM leader: Religious leaderPolitical leaderMilitary leader
19“Fight those who believe not in God and in the last day, and who forbid not what God and His Apostle [Muhammad] have forbidden, and who do not practice the religion of truth from amongt those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands and be as little ones” (Q 9:29)Fight those: who believe not in Allah and in the last day [the Last Judgment]who forbid not what Allah and His Apostle [Muhammad]have forbidden, andwho do not practice the religion of truth from amongstthose to whom the Book [Bible] has been brought [thatis, who embrace a corrupted Bible and believe that Jesusis the son of God]dhimminitude
20Arab Springs: Middle East Countries SyriaIraqTunisiaLebanonMoroccoIsraeli borderKuwaitJordanBahrainWestern SaharaAlgeriaLibyaEgyptOmanSaudi ArabiaMauritaniaYemenSudan
21The many voices of Islam Islam and ModernityThe many voices of Islam
22ContextThe process of industrialization, modernization, and globalization has occurred irrespective of the influence of Islam.Muslims wrestling with modernity are confronted with issues that do not have historical Islamic solutions.The crisis within Islam created through modernization has resulted in a variety of responses.
23Types of Muslims Islamists/Fundamentalists Puritans Traditionalists IjtihadisSecularistsAfrican AmericanMystic MuslimsRefugeesFolk Muslims
24Islamists/Fundamentalists 7% of Muslims WorldwideSeek to develop an Islamic socio-political Muslim society.Reject nationalism, secularism, communism and WesternizationWant “Islamic” values and institutions to counter Western counterparts.Goal: Islamic stateGroups: Muslim Brotherhood (Salafia), Jama’at Islami and Revolutionary Iran.Oppose: secularists, nationalists, liberals, modernists, Westernized Muslims and some puritans.
25Puritans Want to get back to the time of Muhammed and his beliefs. Concerned with theological matters such as ‘correct belief.’Get ride of reverence for saints and saint-worship, magic, certain Sufi practices and any innovation (bid’ah).They are literalists.Groups: Wahhabis.Opposes: Shi’is, Mu’tazilis, Sufis,Muslim ‘orientalists’, innovatorsand liberal Ijtihadis.
26Traditionalists Believe there have been no new developments in Islam since 12th century.Follow strictly the pre-modern schools of Islamic law.Uphold solutions arrived at by pre-modern jurists and theologians.Reject reforms to and criticism of Islamic law.They dominate the traditional seminary system across the Islamic world.Groups: Most Muslims fit into this categoryOpposes: Anyone who calls for reform (ijtihad), modernists, neo-modernists, Western-educated Islamic scholars and ‘liberal’ Muslims.
27Ijtihadists/Modernists Favor re-opening of creative interpretation to find a place in the modern world.Argue for major changes in the methodology of Islamic law and reform.Islamic law needs substantial change to meet the needs of Muslims today.Traditional Islamic law is not relevant - new laws are needed for Muslims today.Groups: Modern, liberal and even ‘secular’ Muslims and some reform-minded traditionalists.Opposes: Traditionalists, Islamists andsome puritans.
28Secularists Western educated elite. Islam is a personal belief. They value personal piety.No need for an Islamic state nor implementation of sha’riah law.Groups: Institution for the Secularization of Islamic Society.Opposes: anyone calling for an Islamic state, socio-political order or those seeking to implement a pre-modern Islamic law in society.
29African American Islam Two categories:Sunni – get back to religion of African AncestorsNation of Islam – black nationalist movement which other Muslims deem “heretical”.Warith Deen Muhammad, former head of Muslim American Society (MAS)MAS operates Clara Muhammad Schools - 27 elementary, secondary, and high schools throughout the U.S.Imam Siraj Wahhaj is a prominent spokesman for Sunni African MuslimsLouis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam
30Mystic Muslims/ SufisFocus on inner spiritual life in response to modernityThey are in love with GodPoetry and song are used to express their loveSome seek mystical union with the divineGroups: International Association of Sufism, Rumi Forum, Fethullah Gulen
31Understanding Refugees Refugees are disenfranchised, displaced people – nothing is normalCircumstances – abused, neglected, disappointed, hopelessTrust – Broken trust in government, news agencies, ideologies, and religion
32Folk/Popular Muslims Over 80% of Muslims Many are poor and uneducated Use charms and amulets for protectionUse Qur’an as book of magicThey say the world is inhabited by jinnSupport found in• Qur’an• Hadith• Superstition
33EvaluationA global crisis has increased the stress level within the world-wide Muslim communitySome of the literature is distinctly anti-Western and apologetic in nature.Many Muslims are victims of Islamic agendas.Because of the crisis in Islam, some Muslims are open to talking
34Christian Response We need to be the loving body of Christ. We need to receive those who are victims of Islamic violence.We need to pray for our Muslim neighbors.We need to resist reducing Islam and Muslims to an ideology we can attack.We need to share Christ with those who are willing to listen.
35Historical review of “Abraham in the Qur’an, in the Bible, and in Archeology & Hisotry” Dr. Rafat AmariGood afternoon. I am Dave Cook and my job is to help us understand broadly about Islam in terms of where they live and to bring a common understanding to terms we often hear but may not have a common understanding of as westerners.
36Abraham original homeAbraham was born during the third Ur Dynasty, which began around 2212 B.C.Ur in this period occupied all Mesopotamia and north Syria.Ur kingdom was terminated by the Elamites around 2004 B.C.The Quran made Abraham to struggle against a king identified in the Hadiths as Nimrod.
38Genesis agrees with historical Frame at the time of Abraham Genesis 14 mentioned the alliance of four kings. In a period where alliances were common.The titles of the four kings:a. Amraphel king of Shinarb. Arioch king of Ellasarc. Chedorlaomer king of Elamd. Tidal king of [ GoiimElam became an important player in the region after Ur fellThe state cities in alliances with chiefs of tribes or groups
39The Quran claim Abraham became a worshiper of God through meditating on the stars, moon, and sun So when the night over-shadowed him, he saw a star; said he: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: I do not love the setting ones. Then when he saw the moon rising, he said: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people. Then when he saw the sun rising, he said: Is this my Lord? Is this the greatest? So when it set, he said: O my people! surely I am clear of what you set up (with Allah). Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheists. (6:76-79)
40The Bible alludes to the knowledge of God in Abraham family And he said, “Come in, blessed of the LORD! Why do you stand outside since I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels?” (Genesis 24:31)No signs of paganism in the life of Rebecca
41The Quranic narration about Abraham’s family (Surah 21:51-70 That Abraham was in struggle with his father. His father was worshiper of idols. Once Abraham destroyed all the idols except the greatest among them. When they saw that the idols were destroyed they asked and knew that Abraham did so. Abraham said that the greatest among the idols destroyed the rest of them. The people then threw Abraham into fire. But Allah said “"O Fire! be thou cool, and (a means of) safety for Abraham!" The Quranic narration is taken from Midrash Rabba
42the Bible did not mention struggles between Abraham and his father Terah 31 Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went out together from Ur of the Chaldeans in order to enter the land of Canaan; and they went as far as Haran, and settled there.Abraham took care of his father until he died in Haran
43The travel of Abraham to Haran then to the Land of Canaan There were travels with itineraries between Ur, Haran, Asia Minor, North Syria, and the land of Canaan. With stations of rest.In the Mari tables, there is written a contract of rental of a Wagon , but it stated as condition not to take the Wagon to the shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
45The Quran claim about Ishmael living in Mecca and Abraham building the Kaaba, and establishing Hajj to MeccaIshmael lived all his life in the wilderness of Paran.The Ishmaelites lived in Sinai until the 10th century B.CMecca was built in the 4th century A.DWestern Arabia was unknown to the Mesopotamians and EgyptiansThe land route between Yemen and The Fertile Crescent began after the 10th century B.C.The Hajj was a pagan Arabian ritual
46Zyed bin Amru bin Nufeil, the first to connect Abraham with Mecca, and its pagan rituals Zyed stablished the group of Ahnaf at MeccaMohammed was a disciple of ZyedZyed was part of Hallah, an immoral sect that encompassed the Kaaba nakedZyed was immoral man marrying his step mother
48The Quran is without purpose The Quran is without purpose. Although Mohammed summarized Genesis 22, did not understand the prophetical experience of Abraham that pointed to Jesus sacrifice.And when he attained to working with him, he said: O my son! surely I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice you; consider then what you see. He said: O my father! do what you are commanded; if Allah please, you will find me of the patient ones. So when they both submitted and he threw him down upon his forehead, And We called out to him saying: O Ibrahim! You have indeed shown the truth of the vision; surely thus do We reward the doers of good: Most surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (surah As-Saaffat 37:
49Understanding the Unavoidable Flag of IranFlag of LibyaIslam of the Qur’an:Understanding the UnavoidableFlag of Saudi ArabiaFlag of IraqFlag of Egypt