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An Energy Systems Primer Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "An Energy Systems Primer Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Energy Systems Primer Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

2 Thank You Thanks to Perform Better and EliteFTS Thanks to the other speakers Thanks to the IFAST Staff Thanks to you Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

3 Objectives Understand the interaction of energy systems Identify the difference between athletes needs in regard to energy production Understand implications for training Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

4 Essential Resources Adaptation in Sports Training by Viru Ultimate MMA Conditioning by Jamieson Exercise Metabolism by Hargreaves/Spriet Block Periodization by Issurin Time-motion research Repeated-sprint ability research Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

5 How do you train a guy for a 10 minute round in MMA? Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011 You have to do 10 minutes of shit. -Joel Jamieson, MMA Conditioning Expert Author, Ultimate MMA Conditioning

6 Energy Systems ATP-CP/Phosphagen (alactic) – Immediate energy Glycolytic (lactic) – Intermediate energy Oxidative (aerobic) – Long term energy Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

7 Contribution by sport Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar ATP/CPGlycolyticOxidative Basketball6020 Hockey Soccer Freestyle ATP/CPGlycolyticOxidative Basketball80155 Hockey80200 Soccer Freestyle9550

8 Energy Systems Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

9 Energy Systems ATP-CP Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

10 ATP-CP No good evidence that training will increase ATP or CP stores in muscles 6 second all-out sprint can reduce CP stores up to 55% Rate of CP driven ATP production decreases when CP is reduced Greater reduction of CP in fast-twitch fibers High power activities may create a CP deficit that will affect repeat performance even before CP is exhausted Without the contribution of ATP from other sources, CP stores could be exhausted in ~10 seconds Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

11 Energy Systems Glycolysis Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

12 Glycolysis Increases in ADP/AMP activate glycolytic enzymes to break down glycogen At higher intensities, Glycolytic activity increases resulting in high levels of lactate and H+ Increased concentration of strong ions (H+, Na+, Cl-, and Pi) at high intensities interfere with muscle contraction In a 30 second sprint, glycolysis and CP provide equal amounts of energy Repeated, high-intensity efforts rely less on glycolytic energy production Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

13 Glycolysis and ATP-CP Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar second sprints on 30 seconds rest

14 Gylcolysis and ATP-CP Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar – 30 second sprints with 4 minute rest

15 Energy Systems Beta oxidation/Krebs Cycle Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

16 Oxidative Metabolism Huge potential for improvement (~240%) The faster it turns on, the less anaerobic energy is required May contribute as much as 13% of energy production in a 10 second sprint and 27% in a 20 second sprint With repeated, high intensity efforts, oxidative metabolism is primarily responsible for ATP regeneration Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

17 Influence of Duration Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

18 Oxidative Metabolism Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

19 Energy System Review All energy systems are working all the time ATP-CP and glycolysis contribute equally in the early stages of maximal efforts Oxidative metabolism contributes earlier and to a greater degree than we once thought With repeated, high intensity efforts, end products of glycolysis inhibit ATP production from glycolytic metabolism and oxidative takes a dominant role. Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

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21 Intermittant Sprint Exercise Intermittent Sprint Exercise – Short sprint/high intensity activity 10 sec – Long duration of rest period (60s to 5 minutes) – Near full recovery – Little to no decrement in performance – Singular events Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

22 Intermittant Sprint Exercise Limiting Factors – Slow rate of CP breakdown – Slow rate of anaerobic glycolysis – Alactic capacity/Glycolytic capacity depending on duration of the sprint Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

23 Intermittent Sprint Exercise Strategies – Alactic power development – Glycolytic power development – Alactic/Glycolytic capacity development depending on duration of sprint – Maximum effort strength/power training – Aerobic development via tempo training (Charlie Francis style) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

24 Repeated-Sprint Exercise Repeated-Sprint Exercise (AKA, RSA) – Short sprint/high intensity activity 10 sec – Shorter rest period ( 60 sec) – Inability to achieve full recovery – Almost always a performance decrement – Typical of most team/field sports Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

25 Intermittant vs. Repeated Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar second sprints on either 2 minute or 30 second rest periods

26 Time Motion Study - Soccer Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

27 Time Motion Study - Rugby Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

28 Time Motion Study - Hurling Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

29 Repeated-Sprint Exercise Limiting Factors – First sprint performance – Limited rest period/recovery time – Power recovery is directly correlated to CP resynthesis – Accumulation of H+ and Pi – Decline of anaerobic glycolysis – Rate and capacity of oxidative metabolism Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

30 Repeated-Sprint Exercise Strategies – Alactic power development – Alactic capacity depending on duration of sprints – Aerobic power and capacity development – Endurance-based strength training Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

31 Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise – Longer periods of activity mixed with variable periods of higher intensity – Variable active/pure rest periods – Performance depends on level of effort, duration of activity, and duration of rest – Energy production from any system is not necessarily maximal Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

32 Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise Limiting Factors Overreliance on glycolytic metabolism for longer activity periods Underdevelopment of oxidative metabolism Low anaerobic threshold Low power output below anaerobic threshold Inability to recover from brief periods of high power output Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

33 Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise Strategies Alactic power/capacity for explosive bursts Glycolytic power/capacity development for shorter activity periods Aerobic power development* Anaerobic threshold training Optimal levels vs. maximal Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

34 Time-Motion Study - Wrestling Olympic Freestyle/Greco-Roman Wrestling 3 – 2 minute rounds Ave. 16 bursts of high-intensity activity ~3 seconds per burst ~23 seconds of recovery Prolonged isometric activity/higher levels of lactate (glycolytic) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

35 Anaerobic Threshold Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

36 Training Notes Most field/team sports are Alactic-Aerobic in nature (AKA, repeated-sprint exercise) Repetitive sprinting requires adequate aerobic power and capacity for medium intensity work AND restoration of short-term energy substrates (creatine phosphate) Insufficient aerobic development causes premature fatigue due to reliance on glycolytic energy production Constant use of high intensity methods interferes with recovery due to SNS stimulation and does not address medium intensity adaptations. Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

37 Interval vs. Continuous Constant use of high-intensity methods interferes with recovery between sessions Interval training does not address medium intensity needs of many team sports Results from high-intensity interval training peak quickly Continuous aerobic training increases aerobic enzymes and reduces anaerobic enzymes. Anaerobic interval training increases both aerobic and anaerobic enzymes Increasing oxidative capacity results in less lactate production despite the same rate of glycogenolysis Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

38 Interval vs. Continuous Greater mitochondrial biogenesis occurred with lower power training than high-power interval training Most effective training to increase mitochondria resulted with continuous training near anaerobic threshold Interval training improves oxidation rate between bouts of activity FYI… intermittent isometric training also increases mitochondrial enzymes Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

39 Tabata Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011 Anaerobic capacity increased 23% in 4 weeks, 28% by week 6 VO2 increased significantly to week 3 and then leveled out Endurance training increased maximal oxygen uptake steadily throughout the study

40 The Methods Cardiac output development – Major determinant of whole body aerobic power Alactic power and Capacity Development Glycolytic Power and Capacity Development Aerobic Power and Capacity Development Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

41 Cardiac Output Development Central adaptation COD Training results in eccentric left ventrical hypertrophy Increases oxygen delivery to working muscles Accelerates recovery between exercise bouts within a training session may contribute to faster recovery between sessions (sympathetic to parasympathetic) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

42 Cardiac Output Development Not all athletes need it or need much of it Some need a lot Athletes with lower resting heart rates and/or those who recover quickly from intensive exercise may not need specific COD training Great initial sprint performance may need more Heart rates should fall into the bpm range to maximize left ventricular refill Durations lasting minutes 1-2x/week as needed Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

43 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

44 Cardiac Output Development Means – Continuous activity (jog, bike, aerobic equipment, etc.) – Body weight circuits – Jump rope – Medicine ball throws – Slide board – Light strength work – Combinations – Breathing exercises Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

45 Alactic Energy System Development Increases the rate at which alactic system can turn on (alactic power) Increases the duration that the alactic system can produce energy (alactic capacity) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

46 Alactic Power Development Alactic power intervals (rate) – 1-3 sec ATP/6-10 seconds ATP+CP – Passive/low intensity recovery (walking) – Work:Rest Ratio 1:20 (max power each rep) – 2-5 sets x total reps – Frequency every 3 rd day – Development time 4-6 weeks – Maintenance 1-2x/week – Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, explosive push- ups, agility training Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

47 Alactic Capacity Development Alactic Capacity Intervals – 8-15 seconds – Passive/low intensity recovery (walking) – Work:Rest Ratio 1:8 (decreasing rest for specificity) – 3-5 sets x total reps – Up to 1-3 times per week – Development time 4-6 weeks – Maintenance at 1-2x/week – Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, jump squats, explosive push-ups, agility training Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

48 Alactic Energy System Development Alactic Capacity Intervals Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

49 Glycolytic Energy System Development Increase the rate of glycolytic energy production Increase the capacity of glycolytic energy production Improve buffering of H+ and strong ions Increases cardiac strength/concentric hypertrophy because of near maximal heart rates Glycolytic system can be trained quickly with lower volumes Too much is destructive to aerobic performance Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

50 Glycolytic Power Development Glycolytic power intervals – seconds maximal intensity – Light activity/Active rest between sets – 4 up to 10 rest periods (Larger peak lactate) – 2-4 sets x 1-3 reps/set – Frequency 2x/week – Development time 4-6 weeks – Maintenance 1-2x/week – Sprints, shuttles, sport specific drills (muscle specific) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

51 Glycolytic Capacity Development Glycolytic Capacity Intervals – 30 sec-2 minutes at best effort – 1-2 minutes active rest between reps (incomplete); 4-6 minutes active rest between sets – 2-4 sets x 3 reps – Frequency 2x/week – Development time 4-6 weeks – Maintenance 1-2x/week – Runs and sport specific drills (muscle specific) Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

52 Aerobic Power Development Aerobic power 1-5 min intervals Work:Rest Ratio 1:1 to 1: reps 1-2x/week Slightly above anaerobic threshold Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

53 Aerobic Power Development Threshold Training minutes +/- anaerobic threshold 5-10 rest 1-5 reps (fewer reps at longer durations) 1-3x/week Runs, circuits, sport specific drills Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

54 Aerobic Power Development Gotta do it fast? 6-12 x 2/1 rest – 30sec/90sec rest x 8 – 6sec/1 rest x x/week Also increases buffering capacity Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

55 Aerobic Capacity Development Aerobic Capacity 8-20 min at best steady state 1-3 reps 4-10 min passive rest 1-2x/week Runs, drills, circuits, short-sided games Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

56 Compatibility Lower level athletes – Inability to generate intensity – Large window of adaptation – Concurrent training Higher level athletes – Concentration of loading – Conflicting stimuli from differing physiological systems – Block periodization Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

57 Compatibility Aerobic Development Heart chamber size Muscle capillarization Mitochondrial biogenesis Myoglobin increase Aerobic enzymes Glycolytic Development Heart muscle thickness Reduced capillarization Decreased mitochondria Glycolytic enzymes Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

58 Compatibility Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011

59 Questions Midwest Performance Enhancement Seminar 2011


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