Presentation on theme: "Energy Transfer During Exercise"— Presentation transcript:
1Energy Transfer During Exercise McArdle, Katch, & KatchChapter 6
2Immediate Energy: The ATP-PC System Immediate & rapid supply of energy almost exclusively from high energy phosphates ATP and PCr within specific muscles.How much stored within muscles?
3Immediate Energy: phosphagens ATP = 5 mmol/kgPCr = 15 mmol/kgFor 57 kg female (20 kg muscle) = 400 mmol totalFor 70 kg male (30 kg muscle) = 600 mmol totalBrisk WalkSlow JogAll-out Sprint1 minute20 – 30 sec.6 – 8 seconds
4Immediate Energy: phosphagens Activities that rely almost exclusively on stored phosphagens:WrestlingApparatus routines in gymnasticsWeight liftingMost field eventsBaseballVolleyball
5Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System To continue strenuous exercise beyond a brief period, the energy to phosphorylate ADP comes from glucose and stored glycogen during anaerobic process of glycolysis
6Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System This occurs when oxygen supply isInadequate orOxygen demands exceed oxygen utilizationActivities powered mainly by lactic acid energy systemLast phase of mile run, 400 m run100 m swimMultiple sprint sports: ice hockey, field hockey, and soccer
7Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System Blood Lactate AccumulationOnly when lactate removal (Ld < La) is slower than lactate production does lactate accumulate.During light & moderate exercise, aerobic metabolism meets energy demands. Non-active tissue rapidly oxidize any lactate formed.
8Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System Lactate begins to rise exponentially at about 55% of healthy untrained person’s max VO2.Usual explanation is relative tissue hypoxia.Point of abrupt increase in blood lactate is onset of blood lactate accumulation.
9Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System Blood lactate threshold occurs at higher percentage in trained individual’s capacity due to:Genetic endowment, e.g. muscle fiber type, orLocal adaptations that favor less production of HLa and more rapid removal rate. Endurance trg. extends exercise intensity before OBLA.Lactate formed in one part of an active muscle can be oxidized by other fibers in same muscle or by less active neighboring muscle tissue.
10Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System Blood lactate as an Energy SubstrateSubstrate for Gluconeogenesis in liverLactate shuttling between cells – supply fuel
11Short-Term Energy: Lactic Acid System Ability to generate high lactate concentration in maximal exercise increases with specific sprint and power training.An anaerobically trained athlete can accumulate 20 to 30% more blood lactate compared to untrained subjects.Possible reasons:Increased intramuscular glycogen stores, 20% increase glycolytic enzymes, motivation.
12Long Term Energy: the Aerobic System The use of oxygen by cells is called oxygen uptake (VO2).Oxygen uptake rises rapidly during the first minute of exercise.Between 3rd and 4th minute a plateau is reached and VO2 remains relatively stable.Plateau of oxygen uptake is known as steady rate.
13Long Term Energy: Aerobic System Steady-rate is balance of energy required and ATP produced.Any lactate produced during steady-rate oxidizes or reconverts to glucose.Many levels of steady-rate in which: O2 supply = O2 demand.Oxygen supply requiresDeliver adequate oxygen to musclesProcess oxygen within muscles
14The Aerobic SystemOxygen Deficit: difference between total oxygen consumed during exercise and amount that would have been used at steady-rate of aerobic metabolism.
15Oxygen DeficitEnergy provided during the oxygen deficit phase represents a predominance of anaerobic energy transfer from stored intramuscular phosphagens plus rapid glycolytic reactions.Steady-rate oxygen uptake during light & moderate intensity exercise is similar for trained & untrained.Trained person reaches steady-rate quicker, has smaller oxygen deficit.
16Maximum Oxygen UptakeThe point when VO2 plateaus with additional workloads.Maximum VO2 indicates an individual’s capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP.Additional exercise above the max VO2 can be accomplished by anaerobic glycolysis.
17Fast- and Slow-Twitch Fibers Fast Twitch Fibers (II)Slow Twitch Fibers (I)Fast Contraction SpeedHalf as Fast as FTHigh Anaerobic CapacityHigh Aerobic Capacity: mitochondrial density, aerobic enzymes
18The Energy SpectrumRelative contribution of aerobic & anaerobic energy during maximal physical effort.Intensity and duration determine the blend.Nutrient-related Fatigue: severe depletion glycogen.
19Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Light aerobic exercise rapidly attains steady-rate with small oxygen deficit.Moderate to heavy aerobic takes longer to reach steady-rate and oxygen deficit considerably larger.Maximal exercise (aerobic-anaerobic) VO2 plateaus without matching energy requirement.
20Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Four reasons why excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) takes longer to return to baseline following strenuousOxygen deficit is smaller in moderate exerciseSteady-rate oxygen uptake is achieved versus in exhaustive exercise never attainedLactic acid accumulates in strenuous exerciseBody temperature increased considerably more.
21Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Traditional “Oxygen Debt” TheoryAlactacid oxygen debt: restoration of ATP & PCr depleted during exercise, small portion to reload muscle myoglobin & hemoglobin [fast].Lactacid oxygen debt: to re-establish original glycogen stores by resynthesizing 80% HLa through gluconeogenesis (Cori cycle) and to catabolize remaining HLa through pyruvic acid (Kreb’s cycle) [slower phase].
23Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Updated Theory because disprove traditional Oxygen Debt Theory.EPOC serves to replenish high-energy phosphates and some to resynthesize a portion of lactate to glycogen.Significant portion EPOC attributed to thermogenic boost that stimulates metabolism (Q10).Other factors EPOC: 10% reloads blood O2; 2-5% restores O2 in body fluids, including myoglobin; all systems increased O2 need in recovery due to effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroxine.
24Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Time frame for lactate removal post-exerciseMass action effect: rate proportional to amount of substrate & product presentPassive or Active RecoveryOptimum recovery steady-rate exercise: passiveOptimum recovery non-steady rate: active
25Oxygen Uptake during Recovery Intermittent Exercise: interval trainingMajor advantage of interval training: enable performance of large amounts of exhaustive exercise & lower HLaExercise: Recovery Ratio1:3 ratio overloads immediate energy system1:2 ratio to train short-term glycolytic system1:1 ratio to train long-term aerobic system
26Illustration References Axen and Axen Illustrated Principles of Exercise Physiology. Prentice Hall.McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch Essentials of Exercise Physiology 4th ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.