6anerobic energy Non – oxidative (without oxygen) Brief; but intense Byproduct is Lactic AcidImportant at the onset of exerciseImportant for events of short durationLow efficiency 1 glucose = 3ATP
7anaerobic power Maximal all out effort for several seconds ATP-PCr energy systemNervous system sends a message to muscle cellATP is split to ADP to release energyPCr restores ADP to ATP, thus repeating the cycle.Anaerobic glycolysisBreak-down of glycogen without oxygen.3 ATP / 1 glucoseProduces lactic aid
8lactic acid By product of anaerobic metabolism Change the acid-base balance in the muscle cellCausing burning sensation in muscles, nausea physical and mental fatigueTraining reduces production of Lactic acid and improves the body’s ability to remove it from the system.
9aerobic energy Uses oxygen to produce energy With exercise heart rate and breathing rate increases so more oxygen is getting to the muscles.Within a few minutes the muscles are supplied with enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.Abundant energy storesCarbohydrates 4 Kcal / gramFat is abundant and rich energy source 9 Kcal / gram
10aerobic energy More efficient than anaerobic 1 glucose = 36 ATPOccurs in Mitochondria of the cell.Glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + energy* Protein is essential to build, maintain and repair issue, but is not a preferred energy source.
11aerobic capacityThe ability of the aerobic system to take in, transport and utilize oxygen.a product of the respiratory, cardiovascular and muscular systems.Measured in L/minHigher measures indicate excellence in non-weight bearing sports.
12aerobic energyAerobic energy is used for low to moderate intensity and long duration.It offers a high energy yield, allowing activity to be maintained for long periods.
13aerobic energyElite athletes may use their aerobic pathways to perform what would be high intensity to lesser athletes.
14aerobic energy Aerobic system uses oxygen to break down food fuels CARBOHYDRATES & FATSHigh energy yield
15energy supplied against time A = ATP-PC - Lactic Acid threshold. The point at which ATP-PC system is exhausted and the lactic acid system takes over.B = Lactic Acid - Aerobic threshold The point at which the lactic acid system is exhausted and the aerobic system takes over.
18energy continuumConsiders the importance of each energy system in a particular activity.Intensity and duration will decide which energy system is used.Often there will be a combination of all three.
19energy continuum e.g: Marathon ATP-PC System – Start of race. Aerobic System – Majority of race.Lactate Anaerobic System – Sprint finish.
20energy continuum e.g: Midfield in football ATP-PC System – Sprinting for the ball.Lactate Anaerobic System – High intensity work, chasing ball, moving into space, dribbling with ball.Aerobic System – Less intense periods when play does not involve the player. Time to recover using aerobic system.
22to do Complete theory of knowledge on page 66. The triathlon is an athletic event that involves performers undertaking a long distance swim, immediately followed by a cycle race and then finally a run of several kilometres.What would be the major energy sources used by a triathlete?Briefly explain how these energy sources are used for regeneration of ATP.
23Briefly explain how these energy sources are used for regeneration of ATP.
24What would be the major energy sources used by a triathlete?
26O2 deficit & EPOC EPOC = excess post-exercise oxygen consumption during recovery from exercise, O2 utilization continues at a rate greater than need at restOffsets anaerobic metabolism during early phase of exercise
27O2 deficit & EPOC Oxygen needed in recovery for: Rebuild ATP % PCr storesMyoglobin (protein) oxygenationCost of elevated respiration to clear out excess CO2O2 needed to cool the body ( breathing)* See page 70, fig 3.18
28to doDraw your own fig 3.19, p.71 to help understand the relationship between exercise intensity & rate of ATP demand.Test yourself page 72Question 1 and 2.Then: explain each sport and the energy systems they use: why and when are they used/dominant.Self-study questions p.73-74