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P3/4 M2- Know the Long term effects of exercise on the body systems.

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Presentation on theme: "P3/4 M2- Know the Long term effects of exercise on the body systems."— Presentation transcript:

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2 P3/4 M2- Know the Long term effects of exercise on the body systems

3 Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

4 Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

5 Increased mineral content – Basically your bones get stronger the more that you use them. – Exercise puts stress on the bones – This encourages the laying down of bony plates and calcium salts along the lines of stress – This increases the tensile strength of the bones – It also increases the strength of the supportive tissue around the joint (Tendons and Ligaments) Exercise that increases bone strength: – Weight bearing exercise, such as tennis, football, running, basketball – Strength Training, such as Weight training, circuit training What benefits do you think a football player would get from these improvements? Skeletal System

6 Hyaline Cartilage – Becomes thicker with regular exercise – It is the most common type of cartilage in the body – It protects the bones from wear at the end of the joints – Provides shock absorption, such as between the vertebrae Hyaline Cartilage – Becomes thicker with regular exercise – It is the most common type of cartilage in the body – It protects the bones from wear at the end of the joints – Provides shock absorption, such as between the vertebrae This means that there is more cushioning and shock absorption after regular exercise. Ligaments and Tendons –Both increase in flexibility with regular exercise. This means stronger joints, and more powerful muscular contraction. Ligaments and Tendons –Both increase in flexibility with regular exercise. This means stronger joints, and more powerful muscular contraction. What benefits do you think a football player would get from more flexible ligaments and tendons and thicker hyaline cartilage Skeletal System

7 Muscular responses to exercise Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

8 Muscle cell Aerobic exercise, for example a series of long runs, or cycle rides would cause changes to the structure of the muscle fibres (Hypertrophy) – Specifically, slow twitch fibres would increase in size (Hypertrophy) Perhaps up to 22% (What type?) This is due to the aerobic exercise putting stress on the slow twitch fibres (What type?) – Would give greater potential for aerobic energy production (What effect would this have on the performance of footballers?)

9 Mitochondria Aerobic exercise has been seen to provide an increase in size and number of mitochondria – % Mitochondria are the basis of our aerobic output – (What effect would this have on players performance in the scenario described in the task?)

10 Oxidative enzymes Oxidative Enzymes It is suggested that Aerobic training increases the activity of oxidative enzymes – These break down food to release energy So we would be able to produce more energy from our food Couple this with the hypertrophy of our slow twitch muscles, and we can supply energy and perform for longer sustained periods – How would this benefit players? So we would be able to produce more energy from our food Couple this with the hypertrophy of our slow twitch muscles, and we can supply energy and perform for longer sustained periods – How would this benefit players?

11 Myoglobin Myoglobin is the substance within the muscle that carries Oxygen to the Mitochondria – Aerobic training can increase myoglobin content by up to 80% More Myoglobin means more Oxygen transport This improves the efficiency of aerobic energy production.

12 Changes All of these changes will mean that more Oxygen can be used by the body – This raises the anaerobic threshold, and means that the onset of fatigue is delayed This would have some serious benefits for first team players. – Maximum Oxygen uptake is largely genetic, but can rise by up to 10% with training. All of these changes will mean that more Oxygen can be used by the body – This raises the anaerobic threshold, and means that the onset of fatigue is delayed This would have some serious benefits for first team players. – Maximum Oxygen uptake is largely genetic, but can rise by up to 10% with training.

13 Hypertrophy hypertrophy Training at high intensity, such as weight training, will produce hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres – This means that the muscle fibres become larger – The increase in size would cause greater strength and power – What benefits would this bring to Oxford Uniteds 1 st team squad?

14 Increase in levels of ATP and PC We need Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate (PC) to work at high intensities – Such as maximal sprinting We need Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate (PC) to work at high intensities – Such as maximal sprinting Weight training will increase the amount of ATP-PC in our muscles – This means that the system will last slightly longer, and would be able to maintain a maximal sprint for 9 seconds instead of 8 seconds. – Explain how a player who had skipped the weight sessions Darren Patterson had added to the training schedule may be at a disadvantage in a 5-a-side training game. – Would DP notice?? Weight training will increase the amount of ATP-PC in our muscles – This means that the system will last slightly longer, and would be able to maintain a maximal sprint for 9 seconds instead of 8 seconds. – Explain how a player who had skipped the weight sessions Darren Patterson had added to the training schedule may be at a disadvantage in a 5-a-side training game. – Would DP notice??

15 Glycolytic capacity Training at high intensities for over 60 seconds increases the glycolytic capacity of the muscle This improves the muscles ability to break down glycogen (to provide energy) without Oxygen – Consequently a player can exercise for longer at a high intensity without feeling tired. – Would this be of benefit to DPs strikers for examples?

16 Buffering capacity By following an anaerobic training programme – The buffering capacity of the body increases significantly This is the ability of the muscles to tolerate lactic acid By following an anaerobic training programme – The buffering capacity of the body increases significantly This is the ability of the muscles to tolerate lactic acid – This means that the muscles can still function with a high level of acidity (Lactic Acid), and therefore keep working for longer at high intensities What benefit would this provide for midfielders?


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