Presentation on theme: "P3/4 M2- Know the Long term effects of exercise on the body systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 P3/4 M2- Know the Long term effects of exercise on the body systems
2 Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitnessMuscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acidSkeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluidRespiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rateEnergy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source
3 Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid
4 Skeletal System Increased mineral content What benefits do you think a football player would get from these improvements?Increased mineral contentBasically your bones get stronger the more that you use them.Exercise puts stress on the bonesThis encourages the laying down of bony plates and calcium salts along the lines of stressThis increases the tensile strength of the bonesIt also increases the strength of the supportive tissue around the joint (Tendons and Ligaments)Exercise that increases bone strength:Weight bearing exercise, such as tennis, football, running, basketballStrength Training, such as Weight training, circuit training
5 Skeletal System Ligaments and Tendons Hyaline CartilageBecomes thicker with regular exerciseIt is the most common type of cartilage in the bodyIt protects the bones from wear at the end of the jointsProvides shock absorption, such as between the vertebraeLigaments and TendonsBoth increase in flexibility with regular exercise.This means stronger joints, and more powerful muscular contraction.This means that there is more cushioning and shock absorption after regular exercise.What benefits do you think a football player would get from more flexible ligaments and tendons and thicker hyaline cartilage
6 Muscular responses to exercise Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid
7 Muscle cellAerobic exercise, for example a series of long runs, or cycle rides would cause changes to the structure of the muscle fibresSpecifically, slow twitch fibres would increase in size (Hypertrophy)Perhaps up to 22%This is due to the aerobic exercise putting stress on the slow twitch fibres (What type?)Would give greater potential for aerobic energy production(What effect would this have on the performance of footballers?)
8 MitochondriaAerobic exercise has been seen to provide an increase in size and number of mitochondria40-100%Mitochondria are the basis of our aerobic output(What effect would this have on players performance in the scenario described in the task?)
9 Oxidative enzymesOxidative EnzymesIt is suggested that Aerobic training increases the activity of oxidative enzymesThese break down food to release energySo we would be able to produce more energy from our foodCouple this with the hypertrophy of our slow twitch muscles, and we can supply energy and perform for longer sustained periodsHow would this benefit players?
10 MyoglobinMyoglobin is the substance within the muscle that carries Oxygen to the MitochondriaAerobic training can increase myoglobin content by up to 80%More Myoglobin means more Oxygen transportThis improves the efficiency of aerobic energy production.
11 ChangesAll of these changes will mean that more Oxygen can be used by the bodyThis raises the anaerobic threshold, and means that the onset of fatigue is delayedThis would have some serious benefits for first team players.Maximum Oxygen uptake is largely genetic, but can rise by up to 10% with training.
12 HypertrophyTraining at high intensity, such as weight training, will produce hypertrophy of fast twitch fibresThis means that the muscle fibres become largerThe increase in size would cause greater strength and powerWhat benefits would this bring to Oxford United’s 1st team squad?
13 Increase in levels of ATP and PC Weight training will increase the amount of ATP-PC in our musclesThis means that the system will last slightly longer, and would be able to maintain a maximal sprint for 9 seconds instead of 8 seconds.Explain how a player who had skipped the weight sessions Darren Patterson had added to the training schedule may be at a disadvantage in a 5-a-side training game.Would DP notice??We need Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate (PC) to work at high intensitiesSuch as maximal sprinting
14 Glycolytic capacityTraining at high intensities for over 60 seconds increases the glycolytic capacity of the muscleThis improves the muscles ability to break down glycogen (to provide energy) without OxygenConsequently a player can exercise for longer at a high intensity without feeling tired.Would this be of benefit to DP’s strikers for examples?
15 Buffering capacity By following an anaerobic training programme The buffering capacity of the body increases significantlyThis is the ability of the muscles to tolerate lactic acidThis means that the muscles can still function with a high level of acidity (Lactic Acid), and therefore keep working for longer at high intensitiesWhat benefit would this provide for midfielders?