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WHATS THE BEST WAY OUT? Mike Larabel Chief of Fire Protection Amway Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "WHATS THE BEST WAY OUT? Mike Larabel Chief of Fire Protection Amway Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHATS THE BEST WAY OUT? Mike Larabel Chief of Fire Protection Amway Inc.



4 What is an emergency? An emergency is an event that jeopardizes The occupants of a building The building The contents of the building Types of emergencies Natural Human based

5 Life Safety Code National Fire Protection Association – NFPA 1913 – Committee on Safety to Life 1927 – Building Exits Code 1966 – Code for Safety from Fire in Buildings and Structures 1981 – Organization of modern Code. Current edition consists of 43 Chapters plus Annexes – explanatory material

6 Means of Egress Exit Access – That portion of a means of egress that leads to an exit. (101) Exit – That portion of a means of egress that is separated from all other spaces of a building or structure by construction or equipment as required to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. (101) Exit Discharge – That portion of a means of egress between the termination of an exit and a public way. (101)

7 Egress Components Doors Swinging Non-swinging – revolving, rolling, sliding Floors Level Sloped Locking mechanisms Turnstiles Force to Open Stairs

8 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Iroquois Theatre – Chicago, IL 12/30/1903 – 602 – Deadliest bldg. fire Fire Proof – Mr. Blue Beard, Jr. Outward door swing in Assembly Triangle Shirtwaist Factory – NY, NY 3/25/1911 – 146 Workers (mostly women) Improved factory safety standards Int. Ladies Garment Workers Union

9 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Cocoanut Grove – Boston, MA 11/28/1942 – 492 Remote egress, Interior Finish Winecoff Hotel – Atlanta, GA 12/7/1946 – 119 Stairway enclosure

10 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Barnum & Bailey Circus – Hartford, CT 7/6/1944 – 168 Lives Lost Flame retardant tents MGM Grand Hotel Fire – Las Vegas, NV November 21, 1980 – 85 Lives Lost Strengthened fire safety laws for sprinklers and interior finish


12 Hamlet Chicken Processing Plant – Hamlet, NC 9/3/1991 – 25 killed, 54 injured (Locked doors) Improved worker safety laws Station Nightclub Fire - West Warwick, NJ 2/19/2003 – 100 deaths TIAs – Improved requirements for sprinklers

13 Station Nightclub Fire White-The-Station-nightclub-fire-West- Warwick-Rhode-Island-/

14 Getting OUT!! Provide employee alarm system Creatures of Habit – The Herd Effect Train evacuation assistants Review plan Initially When employee responsibility changes When plan changes



17 Emergency Notification What methods are used to alert occupants of an emergency?

18 Emergency Messages What do the alarms mean? What actions are you expected to take? Who issues voice instructions? Why should I believe the alarm or emergency information message?


20 Perception What is the perception of the problem? Do employees perceive there truly is a problem? Do we practice what we preach? Fire Wardens – arm band & helmet What do other employees think?

21 Occupant Protection Concepts Evacuate Total Staged Relocation to safe area within the building Defend or protect in-place

22 Area of Refuge A temporary staging area that provides relative safety to its occupants while Potential emergencies are assessed Decisions are made Mitigating activities are begun A stage between egress from the immediately threatened area and the evacuation of the building.

23 Defend/Protect In Place

24 Principles of Exit Safety At least two ways out Exits are within a reasonable travel distance Egress paths are Well marked Well lighted Unobstructed Evacuation training and drills provided

25 MEANS OF EGRESS Occupied Building Open to the public Open for general occupancy 10 or more employees present Door Swing Exterior Exit Doors swing outward – direction of egress Room doors may swing inward – unless occupant capacity of 50 or more

26 MEANS OF EGRESS Locking mechanisms Key operated locks Only certain occupancies Signs indicating door to remain unlocked Main entrance only Single Motion – Non-locking against egress Knob, lever, panic hardware Delayed egress Security controlled – Card Access

27 MEANS OF EGRESS Self closing – automatic closing devices Hold Open - electromagnetic Coordinators Astragals Powered Door Leaf Stairs 7 X 11 Change of direction Area of refuge Landings

28 MEANS OF EGRESS Capacity of Means of Egress Based on Occupant Load, # of exits, etc. Capacity factor – Health Care 0.3, 0.6, All others 0.2 Minimum width – 36 inches Number of means of egress Generally 2 minimum – remote Single exit allowed in certain conditions

29 MEANS OF EGRESS Arrangement Readily accessible at all times Access to two different paths of travel Room to corridor Existing room to room to corridor/exit Dead ends Not permitted – except by chapter – may be 20 to 50 feet in length Not through kitchens, closets, storage, workroom, bedrooms, etc.

30 MEANS OF EGRESS Arrangement – cont. Cannot obscure exit – curtains, hangings, art, mirrors, etc. Measurement of travel distance Based on occupancy requirement Measured along path of travel AGPH – 75/125 to guest room door 100/200 guest room to exit 100/150 exit enclosure to exterior door to public way

31 MEANS OF EGRESS Industrial - General 200 feet unsprinkled 250 feet sprinkled Termination of exits Public way Exit discharge that leads to public way Illumination of means of egress Illuminate access, exit, discharge Stairs 10 ft. candle Other 1 ft. candle Performances 0.2 ft. candle

32 MEANS OF EGRESS Emergency Lighting Minimum of 1 ½ hours 1 ft. candle Automatic in the event of power loss Emergency generator or battery pack Testing on a regular basis Every 30 days Annually – 1 ½ hours Maintain records

33 MEANS OF EGRESS Exit signs required unless obviously and clearly are identifiable as an exit. Exit signs must be illuminated Internally or externally Tactile signage required in new construction Floor proximity egress path marking Along exit access – 100 feet Change in direction Photoluminescent/nuclear powered signs permitted

34 MEANS OF EGRESS NO Exit Doors that do not lead to exit or exit access must be labeled Exit Sign Testing

35 How long will it take? Complete evacuation may require a significant amount of time Evacuation from large buildings can be physically exhausting It could slow emergency responders who may need the stairs to reach the problem

36 Reporting an Emergency Time is critical Report emergencies rapidly Know the procedures for your building Use the best available means of communication

37 Your Responsibility Keep the exits clear No storage or other use within the exit Do not compromise fire protection and alarm systems Promptly report problems with exits or systems to building management

38 Protecting Yourself Do you know how to react if you are faced with an emergency? Could you protect yourself and others around you in an extraordinary event? Self reliance – 72 Hr. response time When all else fails, you are ultimately responsible for your own safety!

39 Protecting Yourself 1,602,000 fires – 3,675 civilian deaths – 3,105 deaths in structures, majority in residential structures. Fire drills in our homes We tell em good, but we dont show them well. Holler at each other Conditioned to the same route


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