Presentation on theme: "Mike Larabel Chief of Fire Protection Amway Inc."— Presentation transcript:
1 Mike Larabel Chief of Fire Protection Amway Inc. WHAT’S THE BEST WAY OUT?Mike LarabelChief of Fire ProtectionAmway Inc.
2 AGENDA DEFINITIONS – GLOSSARY HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE WHERE ARE WE AT NOWWHAT IS THE BEST WAY OUT?
3 DEFINITIONS EMERGENCY LIFE SAFETY CODE 101 MEANS OF EGRESS EXIT ACCESSEXITEXIT DISCHARGEEGRESS COMPONENTS
4 What is an emergency? An “emergency” is an event that jeopardizes The occupants of a buildingThe buildingThe contents of the buildingTypes of emergenciesNaturalHuman basedName some events you would classify as an emergency.
5 Life Safety Code - 101 National Fire Protection Association – NFPA 1913 – Committee on Safety to Life1927 – Building Exits Code1966 – Code for Safety from Fire in Buildings and Structures1981 – Organization of modern Code.Current edition consists of 43 Chapters plus Annexes – explanatory material
6 Means of EgressExit Access – “That portion of a means of egress that leads to an exit.” (101)Exit – “That portion of a means of egress that is separated from all other spaces of a building or structure by construction or equipment as required to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge.” (101)Exit Discharge – “That portion of a means of egress between the termination of an exit and a public way.” (101)
8 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Iroquois Theatre – Chicago, IL12/30/1903 – 602 – Deadliest bldg. fireFire Proof – Mr. Blue Beard, Jr.Outward door swing in AssemblyTriangle Shirtwaist Factory – NY, NY3/25/1911 – 146 Workers (mostly women)Improved factory safety standardsInt. Ladies’ Garment Workers’ UnionThe Iroquois Theater Fire (December 30, 1903 in Chicago, Illinois) was the deadliest single-building fire in U.S. history. The blaze took 571 lives within 20 minutes, and including those who died in the hospital, the death count climbed to a total of 602.The Iroquois Theater, at West Randolph Street, on the north side between State and Dearborn Streets, was advertised as "Absolutely Fireproof" on its playbills. Yet the construction and opening of the theater had been rushed in six months to take advantage of the holiday crowds with much being incomplete. The theatre opened on November 23 and burned 37 days later on December 30. Versus the 1,724 seating capacity, nearly 2,000 patrons, mostly women and children on the holidays school break, were in attendance at this Wednesday matinée showing of the popular musical Mr. Bluebeard starring Eddie Foy and and a performance troupe of 500.The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 146 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. It was the worst workplace disaster in New York City until September 11, The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for better and safer working conditions for sweatshop workers in that industry. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory was located inside the Asch Building, now known as the Brown Building of Science. It has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and a New York City landmark.
9 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Cocoanut Grove – Boston, MA11/28/1942 – 492Remote egress, Interior FinishWinecoff Hotel – Atlanta, GA12/7/1946 – 119Stairway enclosureWinecoff – One central staircase, no fire escapes, no sprinklers – Advertised as “fire proof.” 15 stories, many people died as the result of having to jump out windows. Guests tried to climb down sheets, lost grip, fell.
10 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Barnum & Bailey Circus – Hartford, CT7/6/1944 – 168 Lives LostFlame retardant tentsMGM Grand Hotel Fire – Las Vegas, NVNovember 21, 1980 – 85 Lives LostStrengthened fire safety laws for sprinklers and interior finishCircus tents treated with paraffin to be water repellant
14 Getting OUT!! Provide employee alarm system Creatures of Habit – The Herd EffectTrain evacuation assistantsReview planInitiallyWhen employee responsibility changesWhen plan changesDirect voice communication is acceptable for < 10.
17 Emergency Notification What methods are used to alert occupants of an emergency?Fire alarm signalAudibleVisualVoice instructionsAlternate means of communicationsTelephoneRunners
18 Why should I believe the alarm or emergency information message? Emergency MessagesWhat do the alarms mean?What actions are you expected to take?Who issues voice instructions?Why should I believe the alarm or emergency information message?
20 Perception What is the perception of the problem? Do employees perceive there truly is a problem?Do we practice what we preach?Fire Wardens – arm band & helmetWhat do other employees think?
21 Occupant Protection Concepts EvacuateTotalStagedRelocation to safe area within the buildingDefend or protect in-place
22 Area of RefugeA temporary staging area that provides relative safety to its occupants whilePotential emergencies are assessedDecisions are madeMitigating activities are begunA stage between egress from the immediately threatened area and the evacuation of the building .
24 Principles of Exit Safety At least two ways outExits are within a reasonable travel distanceEgress paths areWell markedWell lightedUnobstructedEvacuation training and drills provided
25 MEANS OF EGRESS Occupied Building Door Swing Open to the public Open for general occupancy10 or more employees presentDoor SwingExterior Exit Doors swing outward – direction of egressRoom doors may swing inward – unless occupant capacity of 50 or more
26 MEANS OF EGRESS Locking mechanisms Key operated locks Only certain occupanciesSigns indicating door to remain unlockedMain entrance onlySingle Motion – Non-locking against egressKnob, lever, panic hardwareDelayed egressSecurity controlled – Card Access
27 MEANS OF EGRESS Self closing – automatic closing devices Hold Open - electromagneticCoordinatorsAstragalsPowered Door LeafStairs7 X 11Change of directionArea of refugeLandings
28 MEANS OF EGRESS Capacity of Means of Egress Number of means of egress Based on Occupant Load, # of exits, etc.Capacity factor – Health Care 0.3, 0.6, All others 0.2Minimum width – 36 inchesNumber of means of egressGenerally 2 minimum – remoteSingle exit allowed in certain conditions
29 MEANS OF EGRESS Arrangement “Readily accessible at all times” Access to two different paths of travelRoom to corridorExisting room to room to corridor/exitDead endsNot permitted – except by chapter – may be 20 to 50 feet in lengthNot through kitchens, closets, storage, workroom, bedrooms, etc.
30 MEANS OF EGRESS Arrangement – con’t. Measurement of travel distance Cannot obscure exit – curtains, hangings, art, mirrors, etc.Measurement of travel distanceBased on occupancy requirementMeasured along path of travelAGPH –75’/125’ to guest room door100’/200’ guest room to exit100’/150’ exit enclosure to exterior door to public way
31 MEANS OF EGRESS Termination of exits Illumination of means of egress Industrial - General200 feet unsprinkled250 feet sprinkledTermination of exitsPublic wayExit discharge that leads to public wayIllumination of means of egressIlluminate access, exit, dischargeStairs 10 ft. candleOther 1 ft. candlePerformances 0.2 ft. candle
32 MEANS OF EGRESS Emergency Lighting Minimum of 1 ½ hours 1 ft. candle Automatic in the event of power lossEmergency generator or battery packTesting on a regular basisEvery 30 daysAnnually – 1 ½ hoursMaintain records
33 MEANS OF EGRESSExit signs required unless “obviously and clearly are identifiable as an exit.”Exit signs must be illuminatedInternally or externallyTactile signage required in new constructionFloor proximity egress path markingAlong exit access – 100 feetChange in directionPhotoluminescent/nuclear powered signs permitted
34 MEANS OF EGRESS NO Exit Exit Sign Testing Doors that do not lead to exit or exit access must be labeledExit Sign Testing
35 How long will it take?Complete evacuation may require a significant amount of timeEvacuation from large buildings can be physically exhaustingIt could slow emergency responders who may need the stairs to reach the problemResearch indicates that it takes a normal individual about 15 seconds per floor to travel down stairs in an evacuation. In a high rise structure this can result in relatively long travel times to reach the ground floor. Evacuations are slowed by individuals who are not physically capable of this effort, people falling or tripping and individuals who become confused within the stair.Large numbers of occupants filling the stairs can impede emergency responders attempting to reach the emergency using the stairways. Large buildings may use staged evacuations in an attempt to deal with this problem.
36 Reporting an Emergency Time is criticalReport emergencies rapidlyKnow the procedures for your buildingUse the best available means of communication
37 Your Responsibility Keep the exits clear No storage or other use within the exitDo not compromise fire protection and alarm systemsPromptly report problems with exits or systems to building management
38 Protecting YourselfDo you know how to react if you are faced with an emergency?Could you protect yourself and others around you in an extraordinary event?Self reliance – 72 Hr. response timeWhen all else fails, you are ultimately responsible for your own safety!
39 Protecting Yourself1,602,000 fires – 3,675 civilian deaths – 3,105 deaths in structures, majority in residential structures.Fire drills in our homesWe tell ‘em good, but we don’t show them well.Holler at each otherConditioned to the same route