2 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition The 2009 Edition of the LifeSafety Code has been published and contains numerous updates relative to doors and hardware.Following are highlights of some significant changes.The purpose of this presentation is to provide a summary view of the changes in the 2009 Life Safety Code, as related to hardware, doors, and means of egress requirements. While we will cover a lot of detail, this presentation does not attempt to cover every change made. Let’s take a look at highlights of some of the more significant changes;
3 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition What’s new?The 2009 edition adds provisions to Chapter 7, Means of Egress for electrically controlled egress doors, elevator lobby access door locking, and door inspection and maintenance.In addition, the remoteness criteria of Chapter 7 were expanded to have applicability to all three elements of the means of egress—exit access, exit, and exit dischargeAs most already know, the applications involving electrified hardware, access and egress control have evolved more rapidly than the code has. As such, electrically controlled egress doors is one area that has changed; since elevator cab and hoist way doors are exempt from positive pressure requirements, many elevator lobbies are required to be protected with positive pressure rated fire doors - the subject of locking elevator lobby doors has now been addressed; taking a page from NFPA edition, the fire door inspection requirements have been adopted in the Life Safety Code, and going one step farther, the Life Safety Code now requires doors in the means of egress of certain occupancy groups also be inspected not less than annually. Another significant change found in Chapter 7 is the expansion of the remoteness criteria so that the language is applicable to all three elements of the means of egress – the exit access, the exit itself, and the exit discharge
4 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition What’s new?The provisions of Chapters 18 and 19, Health Care Occupancies, are expanded to address door locking where the needs of patients or clients require specialized protective measures for their safety and security in hospitals, nursing homes, and limited care facilities.As our population ages and the clinical needs of patients with Alzheimer's and dementia become more acute, the need for safely securing these occupancies has been addressed. We’ll cover these specific requirements when we take a look at Chapters 18 and 19.
5 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition What’s new?These and other changes are covered in this presentation. In addition to these substantive changes, you will find areas where content has been reformatted to group common requirements and improve the ‘readability’ of NFPA 101.If you place the 2006 edition beside the 2009 edition, you will also notice what at first appear to be significant changes. Further reading will reveal that the requirements have not changed, but the formatting and sequence are new……it is almost impossible to summarize all of these cases, most will require a comparison between the two versions.
6 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressSo let’s start into Chapter 7, the Means of Egress requirements;
7 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressWhere means of egress doors are locked in a building that is not considered occupied*, occupants shall not be locked beyond their control in buildings or building spaces, except for….. detention and correctional occupancies, and health care occupancies.Per “occupied” is more than 10 personsThis change clarifies the code as a result of the practice of locking management, cleaning and stocking crews into stores at night – essentially when can the main doors of a mercantile occupancy be locked? The Code development hearings have been the scene of many disagreements around the definition of ‘occupied’. Whether you agree or not, the Life Safety Code now defines occupied as ‘more than ten persons.’
8 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressSurface-mounted latch release hardware on the door leaf shall be exempt from being included in the maximum 7 inch projection requirement of , provided that both of the following criteria are met:(1) The hardware is mounted to the side of the door leaf that faces the aisle, corridor, passageway, or landing when the door leaf is in the open position.(2) The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inch and not more than 48 inch above the floor.This change brings the LSC into equivalence with the IBC regarding hardware encroachment. In the 2007 Supplement to the International Building Code this change appears in section , and now the LSC mirrors that language. In short, the ambiguity around inclusion of hardware in the projection measurement has been removed – hardware is not part of the measurement.
9 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressElectrically Controlled Egress Door Assemblies. Door assemblies in the means of egress shall be permitted to be electrically locked if equipped with approved, listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch, provided that the following conditions are met:(1) The hardware for occupant release of the lock is affixed to the door leaf.(2) The hardware has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated in the direction of egress.(3) The hardware is capable of being operated with one hand…..(4) Operation of the hardware interrupts the power supplydirectly to the electric lock and unlocks the door assembly…….(5) Loss of power to the hardware automatically unlocks thedoor assembly in the direction of egress.As stated in the opening remarks, we are seeing more and more of the application of electrically controlled hardware on doors in the means of egress. The new language in section brings greater clarity to the requirements for these openings
10 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressElevator Lobby Exit Access Door Assemblies Locking. Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43, door assemblies separating the elevator lobby from the exit access required by shall be permitted to be electronically locked, provided that all the following criteria are met:Unlike the IBC, the Life Safety Code spells out the broad requirements in Chapters 1 through 10, and then lets the ‘Occupancy” chapters accept or reject those requirements – hence the common statement, “where permitted by Chapters 11 through 43”. In this case, the Means of Egress requirements for the electronic locking of elevator lobby doors is spelled out.
11 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressElevator Lobby Exit Access Door Assemblies Locking. Where permitted in Chapters 11 through 43, door assemblies separating the elevator lobby from the exit access required by shall be permitted to be electronically locked, provided that all the following criteria are met:(1) The electronic switch for releasing the lock is listed in accordance with UL294, Standard for Access Control System UnitsThe first requirement is for listing per UL Standard for Access Control System Units;
12 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressElevator Lobby Exit Access Door Assemblies Locking. Continued(8) Loss of power to the elevator lobby electronic lock systemunlocks the elevator lobby door assemblies.(9) The elevator lobby electronic lock system is not suppliedwith emergency or standby electrical power.(10) Once unlocked, the elevator lobby door assemblies remainunlocked until the building fire alarm system hasbeen manually reset.You notice that we skipped from item 1 to item 8….the items in between don’t apply to the hardware; item 8 is a common ‘fail safe’ requirement; item 9 ensures that the prior requirement is not overridden by back-up power; and 10 requires a manual action be taken before the doors may be relocked
13 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressElevator Lobby Exit Access Door Assemblies Locking. Continued(11) Where the elevator lobby door assemblies remainlatched after being unlocked, latch-releasing hardwarein accordance with is affixed to the door leaves.(14) The provisions of for delayed-egress locking systems are not applied to the elevator lobby door assemblies.(15)*The provisions of for access-controlled egress door assemblies are not applied to the elevator lobby door assemblies.Items 11, 14 & 15 bring into force the requirements of other parts of Chapter 7. So what is this section trying to govern? Think about the doors that prevent access from the elevator lobby onto the rest of a floor. At night, the occupants of a floor can close and lock these doors so that occupants of other floors cannot gain access by simply stopping the elevator at that floor. But consider an event where the elevator ceases to operate due to activation of smoke or fire detection systems; these requirements ensure that these doors will allow free passage to the exit stairs that most commonly are not accessible from the elevator lobby.While there are a total of 15 provisions related to this specific section on elevator lobbies, only the seven that deal with doors and hardware have been shown.
14 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressSelf-Closing or Self-Latching Door Leaf Operation. Where door leaves are required to be self-closing or self latching and are operated by power upon the approach of a person, or are provided with power-assisted manual operation, they shall be permitted in the means of egress where they meet the following criteria:The six criteria remain unchanged….this section was modified to include the ‘or self-latching’ phraseA small change in this section simply adds the ‘self-latching’ language for clarity – I think most have previously assumed that it applied, but it was not called out.
15 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressInspection of Door Openings.Where required by Chapters 11 through 43, door assemblies for which the door leaf is required to swing in the direction of egress travel shall be inspected and tested not less than annually in accordance with throughFire-rated door assemblies shall be inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives.The 2007 Edition of NFPA 80, Fire Doors, Windows and Other Opening Protectives brought about the requirement for annual inspections of fire rated door assemblies. The 2009 LSC now has these same requirements for fire doors, and, recognizing that many loss-of-life incidents occur not at fire doors but at doors in the means of egress, the LSC now has the similar requirements for means of egress doors, but only in select occupancy groups
16 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressThe inspection and testing interval for fire-ratedand nonrated door assemblies shall be permitted to exceed12 months under a written performance-based program inaccordance with of NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors andOther Opening Protectives.A written record of the inspections and testingshall be signed and kept for inspection by the authority havingjurisdiction.You notice that the requirements include a performance-based option, an important factor for large facilities. This provision allows the creation of what is essentially an audit program, so that not every opening is inspected every year.
17 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressFunctional testing of door assemblies shall be performed by individuals who can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the operating components of the type of door being subjected to testing.Door assemblies shall be visually inspected from both sides of the opening to assess the overall condition of the assembly.As you will see in the next four slides, the requirements for inspection of Means of Egress doors are spelled out. In case you’re not familiar, let’s take a quick look at the specifics;
18 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressAs a minimum, the following items shall be verified:(1) Floor space on both sides of the openings is clear of obstructions, and door leaves open fully and close freely.(2) Forces required to set door leaves in motion and move to the fully open position do not exceed the requirements in
19 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressAs a minimum, the following items shall be verified: continued(3) Latching and locking devices comply with(4) Releasing hardware devices are installed in accordance with(5) Door leaves of paired openings are installed in accordance with
20 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressAs a minimum, the following items shall be verified: continued(6) Door closers are adjusted properly to control the closing speed of door leaves in accordance with accessibility requirements.(7) Projection of door leaves into the path of egress does not exceed the encroachment permitted by(8) Powered door openings operate in accordance with
21 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressAs a minimum, the following items shall be verified: continued(9) Signage required by (3), , , and is intact and legible.(10) Door openings with special locking arrangements function in accordance with(11) Security devices that impede egress are not installed on openings, as required by
22 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressDoor openings not in proper operating condition shall be repaired or replaced without delay.Applicable ChaptersCh 12 – New Assembly OccupanciesCh 13 – Existing Assembly OccupanciesCh 14 – New Educational OccupanciesCh 15 – Existing Educational OccupanciesCh 16 – New Day-Care OccupanciesCh 17 – Existing Day-Care OccupanciesCh New Residential Board and Care OccupanciesCh Existing Residential Board and Care OccupanciesThere are currently 8 occupancies, listed above, that place these annual inspection requirements into effect. Again, the base requirements are found in Chapter 7, and then the select occupancy chapters mandate conformance with the Chapter 7 requirement
23 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressDoors Serving Exit Enclosure. All doors serving the exit enclosure that swing out from the enclosure in the direction of egress travel shall be provided with a marking stripe on the top and sides of the door(s) frame(s). The marking stripe shall also meet the following requirements:(1) The marking stripe shall have a minimum horizontalwidth of 1 in. (25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 in.Moving into a new topic, egress pathway marking has found its way into the Life Safety Code. Those of you that have worked with the New York Building Codes are already familiar with egress pathway markings, frequently applied to stairs, handrails, and landings. There are also provisions within the IBC, although not as stringent as those of New York or the LSC.
24 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressDoors Serving Exit Enclosure.The marking stripe shall also meet the following requirements:(2) Gaps shall be permitted in the continuity of door framemarkings where a line is fitted into a corner or bend, butshall be as small as practicable, and in no case shall gapsbe greater than 1 inch.(3) Where the door molding does not provide enough flat surfaceon which to locate the marking stripe, the markingstripe shall be located on the wall surrounding the frame.(4) The dimensions and placement of the marking stripeshall be uniform and consistent on all doors in the exitenclosure.
25 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressDoor Hardware Marking. The door hardware for the doors serving the exit enclosure that swing out from the enclosure in the direction of egress travel shall be provided with a marking stripe. The marking stripe shall also meet the following requirements:(1) The door hardware necessary to release the latch shall be outlined with a marking stripe having a minimum horizontal width of 1 in. (25 mm).In addition to the requirements for ‘doors serving the exit enclosure’, Chapter 7 also contains requirements for ‘door hardware marking’
26 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 7 – Means of EgressDoor Hardware Marking.The marking stripe shall also meet the following requirements: continued(2) Where panic hardware is installed, the following criteria shall be met:(a) The marking stripe shall have a minimum horizontalwidth of 1 inch and be applied to the entire length of the actuating bar or touch pad.(b) The placement of the marking stripe shall not interferewith viewing of any instructions on the actuating bar or touch pad.
27 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 18 – New Healthcare OccupanciesChapter Existing Healthcare OccupanciesDoors within a required means of egress shall notbe equipped with a latch or lock that requires the use of a toolor key from the egress side, unless otherwise permitted by thefollowing:(1) Locks complying with shall be permitted.(2)*Delayed-egress locks complying with shall be permitted.(3)*Access-controlled egress doors complying withshall be permitted.(4) Elevator lobby exit access door locking in accordancewith shall be permitted.Moving into the occupancy chapters that govern New and Existing Healthcare, we find language aimed at the dilemma of keeping Alzheimer’s patience from wandering, or intentionally releasing themselves, while providing free egress in the event of an emergency. The code has unsuccessfully wrestled with this issue for the last couple of cycles, as has the IBC
28 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 18 – New Healthcare OccupanciesChapter Existing Healthcare OccupanciesDoor-locking arrangements shall be permitted where the clinical needs of patients require specialized security measures or where patients pose a security threat, provided that one of the following criteria is met:(1) Staff can readily unlock doors at all times in accordance with(2) The provisions of are met.One can argue that this language is not perfect, and that may be true – but is does give the specifier and the AHJ guidance as to what is an acceptable means of control
29 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 18 – New Healthcare OccupanciesChapter Existing Healthcare OccupanciesDoor-locking arrangements shall be permittedwhere patient special needs require specialized protectivemeasures for their safety, provided that all of the followingcriteria are met:(1) Staff can readily unlock doors at all times in accordancewith(2) A total (complete) smoke detection system is providedthroughout the locked space in accordance with , orlocked doors can be remotely unlocked at an approved, constantlyattended location within the locked space.
30 Life Safety Code – 2009 Edition Chapter 18 – New Healthcare Occupancies(3) The building is protected throughout by an approved,supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with(4) The locks are electrical locks that fail safely so as to releaseupon loss of power to the device.(5) The locks release by independent activation of each of thefollowing:(a) Activation of the smoke detection system required by(2)(b) Waterflow in the automatic sprinkler system requiredby (3)