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of NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Administration Definitions General

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1 of NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Administration Definitions General
Session 18 | Arch 4224 | Codes & Technical Documentation | Fall Semester 2008 Professor Gary Parker 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 of NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Administration Definitions General Means of Egress

2 Chapter 1 – Administration Section 1.2 - Scope
§1.2.1 Danger to Life from Fire The Code addresses those construction, protection, and occupancy features necessary to minimize danger to life from fire, including smoke, fumes, or panic. §1.2.2 Egress Facilities The Code establishes minimum criteria for the design of egress facilities so as to permit prompt escape of occupants from buildings or, where desirable, into safe areas within buildings. §1.2.4 Areas Not Addressed The Code does not address the following: General fire prevention or building construction features that are normally a function of fire prevention codes and building codes. Prevention of personal injuries incurred by an individual’s own negligence. Preservation of property from loss by fire.

3 Section 1.3 - Purpose §1.3.1 Code Purpose
The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum requirements, with due regard to function, for the design, operation, and maintenance of buildings and structures for safety to life from fire. Its provisions will also aid life safety in similar emergencies.

4 Chapter 3 - Definitions §3.2.6 Shall
Indicates a mandatory requirement. §3.2.7 Should Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required. §3.3.1 Accessible Area of Refuge § An area that is either (1) a story in a building where the building is protected throughout by sprinkler system and has at least two accessible rooms or spaces separated by each other by smoke partitions; or (2) a space located in a path of travel leading to a public way which is protected from the effects of fire either by separation from other spaces or by virtue of location, hence permitting a delay in egress travel from any level.

5 §3.3.2 Accessible Means of Egress
§ A path of travel, usable by a person with severe mobility impairment, that leads to a public way or an area of refuge. § Common Path of Travel The portion of exit access that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths of travel to exits are available. § Electroluminiscent Refers to a light-emitting capacitor in which alternating current excites phosphor atoms placed between electrically conductive surfaces and produces light.

6 §3.3.51 Elevator Evacuation System
A system, including a vertical series of elevator lobbies and associated elevator lobby doors, an elevator shaft(s), and a machine room(s), that provides protection from fire effects for elevator passengers, people waiting to use elevators, and elevator equipment so that elevators can be used safely for egress. § Elevator Lobby A space from which people directly enter an elevator car(s) and to which people directly leave and elevator car(s). § Elevator Lobby Door A door between an elevator lobby and another building space other than the elevator shaft.

7 § Exit That portion of a means of egress that is separated from all other spaces of a building or structure by construction or equipment as required to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. § Exit Access That portion of a means of egress that leads to an exit. § Exit Discharge That portion of a means of egress between the termination of an exit and a public way.

8 §3.3.67 Externally Illuminated
§ Refers to an illumination source that is contained outside the device or legend that is illuminated. § Horizontal Exit § A way of passage from one building to an area of refuge in another building on approximately the same level, or a way of passage through or around a fire barrier to an area of refuge on approximately the same level originating from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. § Internally Illuminated § Refers to an illumination source that is contained inside the device or sign legend that is illuminated. § Means of Egress A continuous and unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1) the exit access, (2) the exit, and (3) the exit discharge.

9 § Photoluminiscent Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed. § Ramp A walking surface that has a slope steeper that 1 in 20. § Self-Luminous Illuminated by a self-contained power source and operated independently of external power sources. § Severe Mobility Impairment The ability to move to stairs but without the ability to use the stairs. § Smokeproof Enclosure A stair enclosure designed to limit the movement of products of combustion produced by a fire.

10 Section 4.5 - Fundamental Requirements
Chapter 4 - General Section Fundamental Requirements § Means of Egress Two means of egress as a minimum, shall be provided in every building or structure, section, and area where size, occupancy, and arrangement endanger occupants attempting to use a single means of egress that is blocked by fire or smoke. The two means of egress shall be arranged to minimize the possibility that both might be rendered impassable by the same emergency condition. The Concept of Alternative Paths

11 The Means of Egress for a small single-story building is usually simple as the 2nd and 3rd components of the Exit Path are often combined. In many one-story buildings, such as retail stores and banks, only the 1st portions of the means of egress exists. A corridor may extend to the exterior wall and open onto a street, yard or other public space. This provides simultaneously the exit access, the exit, and the exit discharge to the exterior public way at ground level.

12 § Unobstructed Egress In every occupied building or structure, means of egress from all parts of the building shall be maintained free and unobstructed. No lock or fastening shall be permitted that prevents free escape from the inside of any building other than in health care occupancies and detention and correctional occupancies where staff are continually on duty and effective provisions are made to remove occupants in case of fire or other emergency. Means of egress shall be accessible to the extent necessary to ensure reasonable safety for occupants having impaired mobility. The Concept of Flow

13 § Vertical Openings Every vertical opening between the floors of a building shall be suitably enclosed or protected, as necessary, to afford reasonable safety to occupants while using the means of egress and to prevent spread of fire, smoke, or fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor before occupants have entered exits.

14 Section 4.6 - General Requirements
§ Modification of Requirements for Existing Buildings Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety is provided, the requirements for existing buildings shall be permitted to be modified if their application would be impractical in the judgment of the authority having jurisdiction. § Additions Additions shall conform to the provisions for new construction. § Modernization or Renovation Any alteration or any installation of new equipment shall meet, as nearly as practicable, the requirements for new construction. Only the altered, renovated, or modernized portion of an existing building, system, or individual component shall be required to meet the provisions of this Code that are applicable to new construction. If the alteration, renovation, or modernization adversely impacts required life safety features, additional upgrading shall be required. Existing life safety features that do not meet the requirements for new buildings, but that exceed the requirements for existing buildings, shall not further diminished. In no case shall the resulting life safety features be less than those required for existing buildings.

15 § Changes in Occupancy In any building or structure, whether or not a physical alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classification to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, building, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements of this Code that apply to new construction for the proposed new use or, where specifically permitted elsewhere in the Code, existing construction features shall be permitted to be continued in use in conversions.

16 Chapter 7 - Means of Egress

17 Chapter 7 - Means of Egress Section 7.1 - General
Exit Access Is that portion of the Means of Egress System that leads from any occupied point in the building or structure to an exit. Exit access is the part of the building where the occupants are engaged in the functions for which the building was designed and are the spaces to be escaped from during an emergency. Although the exit access allows the most freedom of movement, it also offers the lowest level of life-safety protection of any of the components of the Means of Egress. The distance from any location in the floor before gaining access to a protected fire-rated enclosure (Exit) is limited by the Code.

18 § Exit Access Corridors
Corridors used as exit access and serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 shall be separated from other parts of the building by walls having not less than 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with §8.2.3 Exception 1 This requirement shall not apply for existing buildings, provided that the occupancy classification does not change. Exception 2 This requirement shall not apply where otherwise provided in Chapters

19 Exit Is that portion of the Means-of-Egress System between the exit access and the exit discharge or the public way. The exit allows the occupants to move through a protected enclosure in a protected environment where they may escape the building. Hence, exits are separated from other interior spaces by fire-resistance rated construction and opening protectives. Exits include exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps, horizontal exits and exit doors at ground level. There is no limitation about the distance one may travel within the protected exit enclosure. For instance, in the stairways of high-rise buildings, this part of the exit path may be rather long.

20 § Exits When exits are required to be separated from other parts of the building, the separating construction shall meet the requirements of Chapter 8 of this Code in addition to the following: (a) The separation is at least 1-hr rated when the exit connects up to 3 stories. (b) The separation is at least 2-hr rated when the exit connects 4 or more stories. Exception 1, Exception 2 (c) Openings in the separation shall be protected by fire door assemblies equipped with door closers. (d) Openings in exit enclosures shall be limited to those necessary for access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and corridors and for egress from the enclosure.

21 § Exits (e) Penetration into exits and the openings through and exit enclosure are not allowed except: electrical conduits serving the stairway, required exit doors, ductwork for independent stairway pressurization, heating or cooling water piping for the stairway, sprinkler piping, standpipes (f) Penetrations of communicating openings shall be prohibited between adjacent exit enclosures. § An exit enclosure shall provide a continuous protected path of travel to an exit discharge. § An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose that has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if so designated, as an area of refuge.

22 §7.1.5 Headroom Headroom shall not be less than 7’6” with projections from the ceiling not less than 6’8” The minimum ceiling height shall be maintained for at least 2/3 of the ceiling area of of any room or space. Headroom on stairs shall be at least 6’8” and is measured vertically above a plane parallel to and tangent with the most forward projection of the stair tread. Exception 1 In existing building, the ceiling height shall be at least 7’, with no projection below 6’8” from the floor. Exception 2 Headroom in access areas in industrial buildings, Chapter 40.

23 §7.1.6 Walking Surfaces in the Means of Egress
Existing walking surfaces shall be permitted where approved by AHJ. Changes in Elevation Abrupt changes in elevation of walking surfaces shall not exceed ¼”. Changes in elevation between ¼” and ½” shall be beveled 1 to 2. Changes in elevation of more than ½” are considered a change in level and are subject to §7.1.7. Level The slope of a walking surface in the direction of travel shall not exceed 1 in 20 unless the ramp requirements of §7.2.5 are met. Slip Resistance Walking surfaces shall be slip resistant under foreseeable conditions.

24 §7.1.7 Changes in Level in the Means of Egress
Changes in level in means of egress shall be achieved either by a ramp or a stair where the elevation difference exceeds 21”. The presence and location of ramped portions of walkways shall be readily apparent. The tread depth of such stair shall be not less than 13”. §7.1.8 Guards The open sides of means of egress that exceed 30” above the floor or grade below must be provided with guards according to § §7.1.9 Impediment of Egress Devices or alarms installed to restrict the improper use of means of egress shall be designed and installed so that they do not impede or prevent even in case of failure. § Means of Egress Reliability Maintenance of means of egress free of impediments. Decorations, furnishings shall not obstruct means of egress. Railings, barriers, gates should not obstruct means of egress. Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors or adjacent to them to confuse the direction of egress.

25 Section 7.2 - Means of Egress Components
§7.2.1 Doors Doors that are required to serve as exit doors must be readily distinguishable from adjacent construction. Windows that can be mistaken for exit doors should be made inaccessible to occupants by railings or barriers.

26 Section 7.2 - Means of Egress Components
§ Door Width Egress capacity width is measured when the door is open 90 degrees from the face of the door to the stopping. Door openings in means of egress shall be not less than 32” in clear width (between door leaf). When a pair of doors is provided, at least one of them should be 32” wide. Exceptions 1-7 Exit doors serving a room up to 70 sq ft and not required to be accessible to persons with mobility impairments shall be at least 24”. Doors serving buildings or portions of buildings not required to be accessible by SMI persons shall be permitted to be at least 28” in door leaf width. The exit door leaf width in existing building shall be at least 28”. This requirement does not apply for revolving doors §

27 § Floor Level The elevation of the floor surfaces on both sides of a door shall not vary by more than ½”. The elevation should be maintained on both sides of the door for at least the distance equal to the width of the widest door leaf. Exception 1-2 One and two family dwelling units when the door discharges to the outside or to an exterior balcony the floor outside can be one step lower up to 8”. The door at the top of the stair can open directly on a stair provided it does not swing over the stair and the occupancy load is less than 50 persons.

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