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Moving People During Evacuation & Shelter. Assumptions Any type of emergency can occur at any time of the day or night, weekend or holiday, with little.

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Presentation on theme: "Moving People During Evacuation & Shelter. Assumptions Any type of emergency can occur at any time of the day or night, weekend or holiday, with little."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moving People During Evacuation & Shelter

2 Assumptions Any type of emergency can occur at any time of the day or night, weekend or holiday, with little or no warning The sequence of events during an emergency is not predictable—flexibility is essential When an emergency occurs, building leadership may not be in the building We are all in this together; students, faculty, and staff are expected to help one another in an emergency

3 Spontaneous Movement of People Evacuation and Shelter-In-Place movements are the spontaneous moving of people for their safety (protection) What distinguishes them apart from one another is what protective action takes place after the movement begins

4 Get the Word Out –Tell everyone you see what’s happening –If you can, help anyone needing assistance –Let fire department know if anyone inside needs assistance Get In Get Out Always Get the Word Out! Our Responsibility

5 Route Selection Identify at least two permanent exit routes that permit prompt evacuation –Located as far apart from each other as practical to minimize the chance that are both affected by fire or smoke –Exit doors must permit unimpeded passage from inside –Exit routes should not cause occupants to travel toward or through high-hazard areas –Materials, equipment, locked doors, or dead-end corridors must not obstruct exit routes –Doors or passages along an egress route that could be mistaken for an exit should be marked or labeled, such as “Storage” or “Closet” –Exit doors will open when closed. Alarms cause doors to lock from outside, open from inside

6 Assembly Areas Occupants should proceed to assembly after evacuation. –Used for head counts and providing instructions –Areas should be pre-identified planning process

7 Shelter-In-Place Shelter-in-Place is remaining indoors due to a developing dangerous/hazardous situation Ideally, Shelter-in-Place means selecting a small, interior room if possible, with no or few windows, and taking refuge there Desired shelter-in-place options will vary depending on the emergency, but may include bathrooms (during a tornado) and classrooms with lockable doors (during an active shooter situation) 5 square feet per person

8 Panic The term “panic” is often used when discussing evacuation and shelter-in-place movements Post-event research has shown that in most cases people do not panic, and, instead, will try to help others Most people will behave normally and make rational decisions during the incident People will look to each other for information, validation, guidance, and assistance. Communication is KEY!

9 Information processing and decision making by occupants during an emergency can be broken down into six stages: 1.Recognition 2.Validation 3.Definition 4.Evaluation 5.Commitment 6.Reassessment Decision Making

10 Instruction to Occupants D E E R Direct (“Keep Moving”) Encourage (“You’re doing well”/ “Help your neighbor”) Example (Lead by example and Demeanor) Redirect (Safest or open route—Keep Moving)

11 Communications There needs to be front-to-back communication that not only advises everyone in the crowd about the status of the incident, but also the status of the crowd’s movement The information needs to be reassuring, while at the same time providing direction to the crowd It is especially important to communicate to the crowd when there are choke or pinch points that are slowing movement. The purpose is to alleviate pressure, preventing critical density, so there is not a release of destructive energy (1 ½ sq. ft. per person)

12 Evacuation/Shelter Phases &Types Phases –Alert / notification –Initiation of movement –Flow –Verification –Recovery Types –Limited movement –Shelter-in-place movement –Directed evacuation –General evacuation

13 Influences on People The perception people have concerning our role in notifying them about threats can influence their decisions –They expect to be told when there is a problem –Quick, accurate, and actionable messages that provide information and guidance – Conflicting messages will negatively impact trust, so must be avoided. It is important that venue staff give confident direction consistent with announcements. Social affiliation – Family – Friends – Affiliation can be such a strong force that it overrides the threat, causing others to jeopardize their safety for the sake of leaving a group member behind People will go the way they came

14 Group Behavior 10% Cool 80% Freeze 10% Counter Productive –They should be encouraged to comply with the directions –If they do not choose to comply, focus your attention on the other 90%

15 Points to Remember Critical density occurs when average densities in a crowd reach the approximate area of the human body: about 1 ½ sq. ft. per person Doors with push-bars will open when you push them Do not carry individuals in wheelchairs. Let fire department know their location in building

16 ©2007 The Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska. All rights reserved.

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