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Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior, 8e Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 82 COPYRIGHT Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

3 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 83 Chapter 8 High Performance Job Designs Study questions. – What are the alternative job design approaches? – What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? – How does technology influence job design? – How can goal setting improve performance? – What alternative work arrangements are used today?

4 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 84 What are the alternative job design approaches? Job design. – The process by which managers plan and specify job tasks and the work arrangements through which they are accomplished. – The best job design is the one that: Meets organizational requirements for high performance. Offers a good fit with individual skills and needs. Provides opportunities for job satisfaction.

5 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 85 What are the alternative job design approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. – Job simplification. Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may in fact be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs.

6 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 86 What are the alternative job design approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job enlargement. Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. – Job rotation. Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth.

7 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 87 What are the alternative job design approaches? Job enrichment. – Frederick Herzbergs view of job enrichment is based on the two-factor theory of motivation. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job.

8 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 88 What are the alternative job design approaches? Job enrichment cont. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. These duties would otherwise be reserved for management. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth. – Enriched jobs help satisfy higher order needs.

9 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 89 What are the alternative job design approaches? Job enrichment cont. – Cautionary questions regarding job enrichment. Is job enrichment expensive? Will workers demand higher pay when moving into enriched jobs?

10 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 810 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Job characteristics model. – Five core job characteristics are particularly important to job design. Skill variety. Task identity. Task significance. Autonomy. Job feedback.

11 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 811 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Job characteristics model cont. – Combined together, the core job characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A jobs MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics.

12 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 812 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Job characteristics model cont. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched, three critical psychological states are positively influenced. Experienced meaningfulness of work. Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. Knowledge of actual results of work activities. – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes.

13 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 813 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Job characteristics model cont. – Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: Employee growth-need strength is high. The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. Employee context satisfaction exists.

14 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 814 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Job characteristics model cont. – Research results. The model and its diagnostic approach are useful guides to job design. Job characteristics affect satisfaction more than performance. Growth-need strength is an important moderator. The job incumbents perceptions of the core characteristics are the key to whether or not work is motivating.

15 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 815 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs.

16 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 816 What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications. – Not everyones job should be enriched. – Job enrichment can apply to groups. – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment.

17 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 817 How does technology influence job design? Sociotechnical systems. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high performance work systems. – Essential for new developments in job design, given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace.

18 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 818 How does technology influence job design? Automation and robotics. – Highly simplified jobs can be problematic since they lack intrinsic motivation. – Automation is one approach for dealing with highly simplified jobs. A machine is used to do the work previously accomplished by a human. Increasingly involves the use of robots.

19 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 819 How does technology influence job design? Flexible manufacturing systems. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products. – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions and the jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics.

20 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 820 How does technology influence job design? Electronic offices. – Developments in electronic offices offer job enrichment possibilities for workers equipped to handle the technology. – These developments can be stressful and difficult for workers lacking the necessary skills.

21 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 821 How does technology influence job design? Work-flow and process reengineering. – Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – This approach for improving work-flows and job designs is drive by one question: What is necessary and what else can be eliminated?

22 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 822 How can goal setting improve performance? Goals are important aspects of any job design. Goals are needed to give proper direction to workers. Goal setting is the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that a person is responsible for accomplishing.

23 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 823 How can goal setting improve performance? Goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham goal-setting model and related research. – Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are less difficult ones. – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or general ones.

24 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 824 How can goal setting improve performance? Goal setting guidelines cont. – Task feedback, or knowledge of results, is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals. – Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when the people have the abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy required to accomplish them.

25 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 825 How can goal setting improve performance? Goal setting guidelines cont. – Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them.

26 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 826 How can goal setting improve performance? Goal setting and MBO. – Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate. – MBO is consistent with the goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham model. – While MBO has much to offer, it is not easy to start and keep going.

27 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 827 How can goal setting improve performance? The MBO process. – Goal setting. Subordinate actively participates in developing performance goals. – Action to achieve goals. Subordinate performs tasks while supervisor coaches and provides support. – Evaluation of goal achievement. Subordinate actively participates in performance review.

28 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 828 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Alternative work arrangements. – Are becoming increasingly common in the workplace. – Designed to: Influence employee satisfaction. Help employees balance the demands of their work and nonwork lives.

29 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 829 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. – 4/40 is most common form.

30 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 830 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks cont. – Advantages. For workers: added time off and lower commuting costs. For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Disadvantages. For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. For organizations: work scheduling problems, customer complaints, and possible union opposition.

31 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 831 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. – Also known as flextime. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. – Becoming increasingly popular. – A valuable alternative for structuring work to accommodate individual interests and needs.

32 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 832 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours cont. – Advantages. For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover; more commitment; and higher performance.

33 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 833 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Job sharing. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. – Can be done on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. – Practiced by a relatively small percentage of employers.

34 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 834 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Job sharing cont. – Advantages. For workers: less burnout, and higher energy level. For organizations; attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work.

35 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 835 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work sharing. – Different from job sharing. – Occurs when workers agree to cut back on the number of hours they work in order to protect against layoffs.

36 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 836 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. – Telecommuting. Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. – Variants of telecommuting. Flexiplace. Hoteling.

37 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 837 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office cont. – Virtual office. The individual works from the road and while traveling from place-to-place or customer-to- customer by car or airplane. The worker remains linked electronically to the home office.

38 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 838 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office cont. – Advantages. For workers: flexibility, the comforts of home, and choice of work locations consistent with ones lifestyle. For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and improved employee satisfaction. – Disadvantages. For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased identification with work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages.

39 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 839 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Part-time work. – Temporary part-time work. An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. – Permanent part-time work. An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week.

40 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 840 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Part-time work cont. – Advantages. For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work. For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and better management of retention quality.

41 Organizational Behavior: Chapter 841 What alternative work arrangements are used today? Part-time work cont. – Disadvantages. For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts.


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