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Information Technology Project Management by Jack T. Marchewka Power Point Slides by Jack T. Marchewka, Northern Illinois University Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. all rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.
CHAPTER 4 The Human Side of Project Management
Learning Objectives Describe the three major types of formal organizational structures: functional, pure project and matrix. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the functional, pure project and matrix organizational structures. Describe the informal organization. Develop a stakeholder analysis. Describe the difference between a work group and a team. Describe and apply the concept of learning cycles and lessons learned as a basis for knowledge management.
Organization and Project Planning Organizational Structure
Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization Advantages –Increased flexibility –Breadth and depth of knowledge and experience –Less duplication Disadvantages –Determining responsibility –Poor response time –Poor integration The Functional Organization
Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization Advantages –Clear authority and responsibility –Improved communication –High level of integration Disadvantages –Project isolation –Duplication of effort –Projectitis The Project Organization
Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization Forms –Balanced matrix –Functional matrix –Project matrix Advantages –High level of integration –Improved communication –Increased project focus Disadvantages –Higher potential for conflict –Poorer response time The Matrix Organization
Which Organizational Structure Is Best? While the formal organizational structure tells us how individuals or groups within an organization should relate to one another, it does not tell us how they actually relate to one another.
The Informal Organization Bypasses formal lines of communication & authority. Power is determined by how well one is connected in the informal network.
Organization and Project Planning – The Informal Organization Stakeholders – Individuals,groups or organizations with a stake/claim in project ’ s outcome Stakeholder Analysis –Develop list of stakeholders with an interest in the project –Identify their interest in project –Gauge their influence over project –Define a role for each stakeholder –Identify an objective for each stakeholder –Identify strategies for each stakeholder
Stakeholder Analysis Chart
The Project Team The Roles of the Project Manager –Managerial role –Leadership role Attributes of a successful project manager –ability to communicate with people –ability to deal with people –ability to create and sustain relationships –ability to organize
The Project Team Team Selection and Acquisition –Skills desired in team members technology skills business/organization skills interpersonal skills –Size of team –Source of team members
The Project Team Team Performance –Work Groups Members interact to share information, best practices, or ideas No shared performance goals (individual performance) No joint work-products No mutual accountability Viable in many situations
The Project Team Team Performance –Real Teams Team basics –Small number of people –Complementary skills –Commitment to a common purpose and performance goals –Commitment to a common approach –Mutual accountability
Teams vs. Groups A team is not just a group of people working together. A team is not a team because someone says they’re a team. Teamwork is about values not about team performance.
The Project Team –Real Teams Common sense findings: –Teams flourish on a demanding performance challenge –Team basics are often overlooked –Most organizations prefer individual accountability to team accountability Uncommon sense findings –Strong performance goals spawn more real teams –High performance teams are rare –Real teams provide basis of performance –Teams naturally integrate performance and learning
Radical Teams John Redding, 2000 Based on a study of 20 teams A fundamentally new and different form of team work Team work is based on “learning” Provides the basis for knowledge management.
Project Teams and Knowledge Management Traditional teams –Accept background information at face value –Approach projects in a linear fashion –Provide run-of-the-mill solutions Radical teams –Get to the root of the matter –Do not accept information at face value –Question and challenge the framing of the original problem
Learning Cycles Derived from educator/philosopher John Dewey (1938) Used to describe how people learn (Kolb, 1984; Honey & Mumford, 1994) Can be applied to project teams (Jeris, 1997; Redding, 2000).
A Learning Cycle
Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cycles –Understand and frame problem Create a shared understanding What is the problem (or opportunity)? What are we trying to do? How are we going to do it? Starts out being general but becomes more defined as the project proceeds
Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cycles –Plan Teams plan actions to produce learning by answering –What don’t we know that we need to know? –What actions can we take between now & our next meeting to find out what we need to know? –How can we verify that what we are assuming is actually true?
Team Learning Record
Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cycles –Act Key to learning is action! What teams do outside of meetings is just as important as what they do during meetings –Test assumptions –Experiment –Gather new information –Try out hunches Only by acting do teams have the opportunity to learn
Action Plan for Team Learning
Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cycles –Reflect and Learn Focus of team meetings Really when team learning occurs Teams need to slow down, reflect on what has happened and capture lessons learned Must occur –In a spirit of openness –Not in a climate of self-protection or criticism
Assessing team learningSpeedDepthBreadth
Assessing Team Learning Speed –Number of learning cycles completed –The more cycles completed, the more learning that takes place Depth –Degree to which teams “reframe” their understanding of the original problem Breadth (Impact) –The impact of the results produced by the team –Degree to which other projects, functional areas, or the organization as a whole is influenced
Team Learning Cycles over the Project Life Cycle
The Project Environment A place to call home Technology support Office supplies Culture