Presentation on theme: "Information Technology Project Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Information Technology Project Management by Jack T. MarchewkaPower Point Slides by Jack T. Marchewka, Northern Illinois UniversityCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. all rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.
3Learning ObjectivesDescribe the three major types of formal organizational structures: functional, pure project and matrix.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the functional, pure project and matrix organizational structures.Describe the informal organization.Develop a stakeholder analysis.Describe the difference between a work group and a team.Describe and apply the concept of learning cycles and lessons learned as a basis for knowledge management.
4Organization and Project Planning Organizational Structure
5Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization The Functional OrganizationAdvantagesIncreased flexibilityBreadth and depth of knowledge and experienceLess duplicationDisadvantagesDetermining responsibilityPoor response timePoor integration
7Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization The Project OrganizationAdvantagesClear authority and responsibilityImproved communicationHigh level of integrationDisadvantagesProject isolationDuplication of effortProjectitis
9Organization and Project Planning – The Formal Organization The Matrix OrganizationFormsBalanced matrixFunctional matrixProject matrixAdvantagesHigh level of integrationImproved communicationIncreased project focusDisadvantagesHigher potential for conflictPoorer response time
11Which Organizational Structure Is Best Which Organizational Structure Is Best? While the formal organizational structure tells us how individuals or groups within an organization should relate to one another, it does not tell us how they actually relate to one another.
12The Informal Organization Bypasses formal lines of communication & authority.Power is determined by how well one is connected in the informal network.
13Organization and Project Planning – The Informal Organization Stakeholders –Individuals,groups or organizations with a stake/claim in project’s outcomeStakeholder AnalysisDevelop list of stakeholders with an interest in the projectIdentify their interest in projectGauge their influence over projectDefine a role for each stakeholderIdentify an objective for each stakeholderIdentify strategies for each stakeholder
15The Project Team The Roles of the Project Manager Managerial roleLeadership roleAttributes of a successful project managerability to communicate with peopleability to deal with peopleability to create and sustain relationshipsability to organize
16The Project Team Team Selection and Acquisition Skills desired in team memberstechnology skillsbusiness/organization skillsinterpersonal skillsSize of teamSource of team members
17The Project Team Team Performance Work Groups Members interact to share information, best practices, or ideasNo shared performance goals (individual performance)No joint work-productsNo mutual accountabilityViable in many situations
18The Project Team Team Performance Real Teams Team basics Small number of peopleComplementary skillsCommitment to a common purpose and performance goalsCommitment to a common approachMutual accountability
19Teams vs. GroupsA team is not just a group of people working together.A team is not a team because someone says they’re a team.Teamwork is about values not about team performance.
20The Project Team Real Teams Common sense findings: Teams flourish on a demanding performance challengeTeam basics are often overlookedMost organizations prefer individual accountability to team accountabilityUncommon sense findingsStrong performance goals spawn more real teamsHigh performance teams are rareReal teams provide basis of performanceTeams naturally integrate performance and learning
21Radical Teams John Redding, 2000 Based on a study of 20 teams A fundamentally new and different form of team workTeam work is based on “learning”Provides the basis for knowledge management.
22Project Teams and Knowledge Management Traditional teamsAccept background information at face valueApproach projects in a linear fashionProvide run-of-the-mill solutionsRadical teamsGet to the root of the matterDo not accept information at face valueQuestion and challenge the framing of the original problem
23Learning Cycles Derived from educator/philosopher John Dewey (1938) Used to describe how people learn (Kolb, 1984; Honey & Mumford, 1994)Can be applied to project teams (Jeris, 1997; Redding, 2000).
25Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cyclesUnderstand and frame problemCreate a shared understandingWhat is the problem (or opportunity)?What are we trying to do?How are we going to do it?Starts out being general but becomes more defined as the project proceeds
26Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cyclesPlanTeams plan actions to produce learning by answeringWhat don’t we know that we need to know?What actions can we take between now & our next meeting to find out what we need to know?How can we verify that what we are assuming is actually true?
28Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cyclesActKey to learning is action!What teams do outside of meetings is just as important as what they do during meetingsTest assumptionsExperimentGather new informationTry out hunchesOnly by acting do teams have the opportunity to learn
30Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned Phases of learning cyclesReflect and LearnFocus of team meetingsReally when team learning occursTeams need to slow down, reflect on what has happened and capture lessons learnedMust occurIn a spirit of opennessNot in a climate of self-protection or criticism
32Assessing Team Learning SpeedNumber of learning cycles completedThe more cycles completed, the more learning that takes placeDepthDegree to which teams “reframe” their understanding of the original problemBreadth (Impact)The impact of the results produced by the teamDegree to which other projects, functional areas, or the organization as a whole is influenced
33Team Learning Cycles over the Project Life Cycle
34The Project Environment A place to call homeTechnology supportOffice suppliesCulture