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The Greenhouse Effect, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis

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Presentation on theme: "The Greenhouse Effect, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Greenhouse Effect, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis
Is the Earth Warming? The Greenhouse Effect, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis Copyright © 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

2 4.1 The Greenhouse Effect Methane Nitrous oxide Water vapor
The greenhouse effect, the accumulation of specific gases: Methane Nitrous oxide Water vapor Carbon dioxide (CO2) Less heat escapes to space More heat remains in the atmosphere

3 The Greenhouse Effect It is important to have some greenhouse gases in the atmosphere If not, all the heat would escape and the planet would be too cold to support life Cars, trucks, power plants and factories all emit air pollution that forms ground-level ozone or smog. Many popular consumer products like air conditioners and refrigerators involve CFCs or halons during either manufacture or use. These chemicals damage the earth's protective ozone layer.

4 Water, Heat, and Temperature
Heat is the total amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a substance Temperature is the intensity of heat Hydrogen bonds between water molecules are constantly breaking (absorbing heat) and reforming (releasing heat) Bodies of water absorb heat and keep temperatures stable Water’s high heat absorbing capacity has important effects on Earths’s climate

5 Carbon Dioxide The oceans act as the largest heat and carbon dioxide reservoir But scientists question how much more can they hold Human activities have caused an increase in levels of carbon dioxide Mainly from burning fossil fuels

6 The Greenhouse Effect, Organisms, and Their Environment
Has human activity affected the natural cycle of temperature on Earth? The effects of warmer temperatures are numerous…

7 The Greenhouse Effect, Organisms, and Their Environment
Glacier National Park, Montana Glaciers are shrinking and disappearing From 150 glaciers in 1850 to 35 glaciers in 2005 Greenland icecap is thinner every year Many ice shelves have collapsed in Antarctica

8 Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania has lost 82% of its ice cap since 1912

9 The Greenhouse Effect, Organisms, and Their Environment
Effects on climate: Sea levels rose 4-8 inches in the 20th century due to melting ice Increases in rain and snow Increases in storms (frequency and severity)

10 Identify 3 greenhouse gases
Methane Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide

11 What is the main contributer of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere?
Burning of fossil fuels

12 What are the main consequences of the greenhouse effect?
Melting ice caps Sea levels rising More severe storms

13 Carbon Dioxide atmosphere bodies of water soil
CO2 is recycled between: plants and animals atmosphere bodies of water soil Carbon Dioxide

14 Carbon Dioxide Plants use energy from sunlight to produce organic molecules by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis take energy from the sun and turn it into energy in food Photosynthesis also releases oxygen (O2) into the atmosphere

15 Carbon Dioxide In cellular respiration, plants and animals harvest energy from food and put it into ATP The metabolism of organic molecules by cellular respiration produces energy and water, as well as CO2, which is put into the atmosphere

16 4.2 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration converts energy stored in chemical bonds into energy used by cells Cells use ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as their energy source ATP can supply energy to cells because it stores energy obtained from food

17 The Structure of ATP A nucleotide made up of an adenine (base), sugar, and three negatively-charged phosphates The negative charges repel each other, contributing to the stored energy of ATP

18 The Structure of ATP When ATP (adenosine triphosphate) releases a phosphate, it becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate) The phosphate released from ATP can be donated to another molecule (such as an enzyme) in a process called phosphorylation…

19 The Functions of ATP ATP helps carry out many functions in cells:
Mechanical work − such as the movement of proteins in muscles Transport work − such as the movement of substances across membranes Chemical work − such as making complex molecules out of simple molecules

20 An ATP molecule is made up of 3 parts:
Sugar 3 phosphate groups adenine

21 Identify 3 functions of ATP
Mechanical work Transport work Chemical work

22 When ATP ____________ another molecule it becomes ____.
Phosphorylates ADP

23 Cellular Respiration ATP is in high demand and is regenerated from ADP through cellular respiration Figure 4.13 Regenerating ATP. ATP is regenerated from ADP and phosphate during the process of cellular respiration.

24 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration (also called aerobic respiration) requires oxygen Humans breathe in to supply oxygen to their cells Exhalation gives off carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration

25 A General Overview of Cellular Respiration
All food is broken down to produce ATP The equation for carbohydrate breakdown:

26 The 3 steps of cellular respiration are:
Glycolysis The Krebs cycle Electron Transport

27 Glycolysis A 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken down into two 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules Occurs in the cytosol Does not require oxygen (anaerobic) Makes very little ATP (2)

28 Glycolysis After glycolysis, the two 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules move into the mitochondria Mitochondria are organelles found in all eukaryotes (protist, fungi, plant, and animal cells)

29 The molecules move across the two mitochondrial membranes and into the matrix of the mitochondrion where the Krebs cycle begins Krebs Cycle

30 Krebs Cycle Where is the energy? The energy from the food is:
Directly put into ATP Or: Put into transport molecules NADH FADH2

31 The Electron Transport Chain
Series of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane Passes electrons down the chain and are picked up by oxygen As this occurs, H+ ions are pulled across the membrane into the inner membrane space Figure 4.21 The electron transport chain. Energy from electrons added to the top of the electron transport chain is used to produce ATP.

32 Each molecule of glucose is broken down, resulting in carbon dioxide and water and ATP energy

33 Metabolism of Other Nutrients
Proteins and fats are also food molecules that contain energy They are broken down, but not in exactly the same steps

34 Fermentation Anaerobic process
Series of ATP producing reactions that do not require oxygen Glycolysis breaks down glucose into molecules of pyruvic acid and produces two molecules of ATP If sufficient oxygen is present, pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis enters aerobic respiration pathways producing a large amount of ATP If oxygen levels are low: Animals pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid which is carried away by the blood Bacteria/yeast pyruvic acid is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide Anaerobic respiration can provide enough energy for about 30 to 40 seconds of muscle activity


36 Global Warming and Cellular Respiration
Increased global temperatures speed up the life cycle of the spruce bark beetle Beetles bore holes in bark of spruce trees causing the spruce trees to die Without cold winters, the spruce bark beetles continue to multiply Warmer temperatures make enzymes work faster, so metabolic processes work faster; beetles mature twice as quickly More beetles means more dead trees, which increases forest fires releasing CO2 in the air and heat into the atmosphere

37 List the 3 steps of cellular respiration and identify where each takes place:
Glycolysis; cytosol Krebs Cycle: mitochondrial matrix Electron Transport chain: inner membrane of mitochondria

38 Identify the products of glycolysis?
2 pyruvate molecules NADH 2 ATP

39 Identify the products of the Kreb Cycle:
2 ATP Carbon dioxide 2 NADH

40 What are the products of electron transport chain?
34 – 36 ATP Water

41 What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?

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