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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 – ENERGY PROCESSING IN LIVING ORGANISMS"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is energy? Where do you get your energy from? What do you use your energy for? Would you be able to live without energy? Can energy be recycled? What does the first law of thermodynamics state about energy? How do producers get their energy? In which cell organelle does most of the energy processing take place? Draw and label it. What is the main energy carrier molecule in living organisms?

3 I. Overview Review and be familiar with the following terms:
Autotrophs Heterotrophs Both autotrophs and heterotrophs break down glucose to get energy. This energy is used to fuel life processes.

4 1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
ATP: A modified nucleotide molecule that powers all cellular work directly. Its structure: adenine, ribose and three phosphates are combined by dehydration synthesis

5 ATP molecules release phosphate groups to various other molecules
ATP molecules release phosphate groups to various other molecules. These molecules take in the phosphate by phosphorylation and get excess energy to perform various processes. When ATP releases a phosphate + energy it produces ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ADP can turn back to ATP by taking in a phosphate and energy by phosphorylation


7 2. Electron Carrier Molecules
There are two different molecules that are used to carry electrons and hydrogen ions to the last step cellular respiration. NAD+ carries 2 electrons and a hydrogen ion at a time – NADH FAD carries 2 electrons and two hydrogen ions at a time -- FADH

8 3. The Basics of Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration – releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. 6 O2 + C6H12O6 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy Cellular respiration takes place in small steps to minimize the loss of energy in the form of heat or light. Processes that require oxygen to take place are called aerobic. Processes that do not require oxygen to take place are anaerobic.


10 Cellular respiration consists of three major steps if oxygen is present:
Glycolysis – in the cytoplasm The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) – in the mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation – in the mitochondrion Cellular respiration is a collection of enzyme catalyzed reactions of oxidation (the loss of electrons or hydrogen from an element, or the gain of oxygen) and reduction (the gaining of an electron, or hydrogen or losing oxygen by an element)

11 ATP molecules can be produced in two ways:
Substrate level phosphorylation -- when enzymes directly transfer phosphate to ADP during exergonic chemical reactions. Oxidative phosphorylation – When ATP synthesis is fueled by creating a concentration difference of H+ ions between two sides of a membrane.

12 II. The Steps of Cellular Respiration – Glycolysis
The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid. This process will also produce 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules. ATP is used in other life processes NADH moves 2 electrons and 1 H+ per molecule to the last step of cellular respiration The initial investment of 2 ATP molecules are needed


14 Fermentation (an alternative if oxygen is not present)
After glycolysis fermentation will take place if oxygen is not present in the organism. Fermentation will recycle the used NADH into NAD+. Fermentation forms a total of 2 ATP molecules from one glucose (produced in glycolysis). Takes place in the cytoplasm

15 Types of fermentation:
Alcoholic fermentation – Yeast and other organisms form alcohol and CO2 by the following process: Pyruvic acid + NADH2 → CO2 + ethanol + NAD+ Lactic acid fermentation – Skeletal muscle cells of mammals and some bacteria produce lactic acid. Lactic acid is a harmful chemical than needs to be removed from the muscle cells: Pyruvic acid + NADH2 → lactic acid + NAD+


17 III. Pyruvate Oxidation and The Citric Acid Cycle – The Second Step of Cellular Respiration
Aerobic process that takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion. During this process, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide and ATP in a series of reactions. Two parts of this process are: Pyruvate oxidation Citric acid cycle

18 The first step of this process is to break down pyruvic acid into an acetyl group that binds with a Coenzyme-A the complex that is formed is called Acetyl-CoA. – This is called pyruvate oxidation. Steps: One carbon is released as CO2 Two e- and a H+ is carried away by NADH The remaining 2C compound binds to Coenzyme-A Acetyl-CoA starts the citric acid cycle that will extract energy and electrons from organic molecules.


20 1 ATP per cycle is also produced.
During the citric acid cycle, the carbon atoms from Acetyl – CoA form CO2 – released into the atmosphere Hydrogen ions and electrons bind to NAD+ and FAD and move to the oxidative phosphorylation 1 ATP per cycle is also produced. The cycle takes place twice per glucose


22 V. Oxidative Phosphorylation
NADH and FADH2 molecules from the Krebs cycle, intermediate process and glycolysis pass their electrons through an electron transport chain. This uses the high energy electrons to convert ADP into ATP. This process takes place on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This is an aerobic process in which oxygen gas is used to form water from the electrons and hydrogen that was left from the breakdown of glucose.

23 Products: 6 H2O 32 ATP molecules The movement of hydrogen ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion fuelled the movement of high energy electrons yields to the production of ATP. We are going to look at the picture on the next slide together and form the steps of the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation together Songs:



26 VI. Comparing Aerobic Respiration and Fermentation
While fermentation can take place without oxygen and is a simpler process, it produces only 2 ATP molecules from glucose. It also produces some harmful chemicals (ethanol or lactic acid) that the body needs to break down. Cellular respiration produces a total of 36 ATP molecules from one glucose. Other producs include CO2 and H2O that are released into the environment.

27 VII. Energy and Exercise
When the body needs energy quickly, it starts to break down the available ATP molecules, than glucose. If oxygen is not present fermentation will take place. If enough oxygen is present in the cell, cellular respiration takes place. If enough glucose is not available, the body starts to break down the stored glycogen than fats finally proteins.


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