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CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 Review. In which of these organisms would you expect to find cellular respiration happening? All of them; all living things.

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Presentation on theme: "CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 Review. In which of these organisms would you expect to find cellular respiration happening? All of them; all living things."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 Review

2 In which of these organisms would you expect to find cellular respiration happening? All of them; all living things need to make ATP for energy Animals green plants Fungi humans bacteria

3 Which 2 carriers for high energy electrons are used during cellular respiration? NADH and FADH 2 Name the organelle where glucose is burned and the energy is stored as ATP mitochondria

4 Which molecule acts as the last electron acceptor to make water? O2O2

5 How many carbons are in a Pyruvic acid molecule? 3 Give the overall equation for cellular respiration 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 → 6 CO H 2 O + energy

6 Compare the equation for PHOTOSYNTHESIS below with the equation for CELLULAR RESPIRATION 6 CO H 2 O + ENERGY → 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 → 6 CO H 2 O + ENERGY Cellular respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis

7 Name the 6 carbon molecule formed in this reaction What happens to the Coenzyme A after dropping off its 2 carbons? Citric acid Recycles back and picks up 2 more carbons from pyruvic acid

8 How many ATP’s are produced from each molecule of glucose that completes cellular respiration all the way through the Electron transport chain? 36 ATP’s are produced The Krebs cycle is also called the _______________ cycle. Citric acid

9 Which pathway generates the most energy from glucose? FERMENTATION CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular respiration Which stage of respiration generates the most ATP? ELECTRON TRANSPORT Glycolysis = 2 ATP(net) Krebs cycle = 2 ATP Electron transport chain = 32 ATP (net)

10 Identify the part: A = ______________ B = ______________ C = ______________ D = ________________ E = ________________ Outer membrane inner membrane (cristae) Intermembrane space matrix ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; E cytoplasm

11 Give the chemical equation for Lactic acid fermentation Pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD + After glycolysis, which pathway will pyruvic acid follow if oxygen is present? It will enter the Krebs cycle

12 Identify the 3 stages of cellular respiration: #1 = _____________ #2 = _____________ #3 = _____________ glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

13 True or False Only animal cells have mitochondria False; both plants and animals have mitochondria How many carbons are in a glucose Molecule? 6; C 6 H 12 O 6

14 Give the chemical equation for alcoholic fermentation Pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO 2 + NAD + Cellular respiration begins with a pathway called ______________ glycolysis

15 Where will the citric acid that is produced here go next? What will happen to the C’s in citric acid that came from Acetyl-CoA? Cycle through the Krebs cycle Released into atmosphere as CO 2

16 After glycolysis, what determines which pathway pyruvic acid will follow? Presence or absence of oxygen Name the two kinds of fermentation Lactic acid and alcoholic

17 True or False Glycolysis releases a great deal of energy. False; only a net of 2 ATP and 2 NADH The 3 carbon molecule produced during glycolysis is ________________ Pyruvic acid

18 Why can’t the energy in glucose be released in just one step? Too much at once; most of the energy would be lost as light and heat Where does glycolysis take place? In the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria

19 How many ATP’s must be added to get glycolysis started? 2 ATP’s Why can glycolysis supply energy to cells when oxygen is not available? Glycolysis does NOT require oxygen

20 How many ATP’s are produced during glycolysis? 4 ATP’s are produced, but it took 2 ATP’s to get started so … net of 2 ATP’s What problem does a cell have when it generates large amounts of ATP using only glycolysis? Once all the available NAD + carriers are filled up & glycolysis will stop

21 Which molecule is regenerated during fermentation that allows cells to continue to make ATP using glycolysis when oxygen is low? NAD + Name the 3 pathways that make up cellular respiration in order. Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain

22 Tell its location: Where Krebs cycle happens = ___ Where is the Electron Transport Chain found = ___ H + ions accumulate here during electron transport = ___ Place where glycolysis happens= ___ D B C E ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall;

23 Type of fermentation used to make yogurt, cheese, saurkraut, kimchi, buttermilk, etc. Lactic acid fermentation The energy produced by electrons passing down the Electron Transport chain are used to move which ion into the intermembrane space? H + ions are pumped from the matrix and accumulate in the intermembrane space

24 Which parts of cellular respiration require oxygen? Krebs cycle & Electron transport chain Why is the Krebs cycle also called the citric acid cycle? Citric acid is the first compound formed during the Krebs cycle

25 Which kind of fermentation puts the air holes in bread? Alcoholic fermentation releases CO 2 bubbles which pop and leave holes in the bread What is the final electron acceptor at the end of the Electron Transport Chain? oxygen

26 If alcoholic fermentation is what makes bread rise, why don’t we get intoxicated from eating the bread? Alcohol evaporates during cooking During short term exercise cells are using which pathway to provide energy? Lactic acid fermentation cellular respiration lactic acid fermentation

27 What happens to the CO 2 produced when pyruvic acid is broken down? It is released into the atmosphere What is the energy tally from 1 molecule of pyruvic acid during the Krebs cycle? 4 NADH, 1FADH 2, and 1 ATP

28 Where is the intermembrane space in this diagram? Which ion is moving across the membrane at the purple arrows? A H+H+

29 Where will the NADH produced in this reaction go next if oxygen is present? Where will the pyruvic acid go next if oxygen is present? To electron transport chain Into mitochondria and Krebs cycle

30 Only about 38% of the energy in glucose is recovered during cellular respiration, what happens to the rest? released as heat; (doesn’t sound that good, but that’s more efficient than the typical car engine is at burning gasoline) The movement of which ion across the inner mitochondrial membrane causes ATP synthase to spin and make ATP? H+H+

31 Where does the CO 2 produced here go next? released to the atmosphere

32 Reactions that happen without oxygen are called _____________________ 1 Calorie = ________ calories anerobic 1000

33 Storage form of glucose used by animal cells that supplies long term energy needs glycogen Which molecule do cells burn for energy once glucose and glycogen are used up? fat

34 Where does the Krebs cycle take place? Mitochondrial Matrix Where is the Electron Transport Chain located? Inner mitochondrial membrane (cristae)

35 Name the 4 products of the Krebs cycle CO 2, NADH, FADH 2, ATP

36 Which enzyme helper molecule reacts with pyruvic acid to for Acetyl-CoA? Coenzyme A OR CoA On which side of the membrane is ATP produced during the Electron Transport Chain reactions? Mitochondrial matrix

37 What happens to pyruvic acid during the Krebs cycle? It is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of steps Because fermentation does NOT require oxygen it is said to be __________________ anaerobic

38 A marathon runner needing energy for an EXTENDED PERIOD of time is getting his/her ATP from ___________________ A. photosynthesis B. lactic acid fermentation C. alcoholic fermentation D. cellular respiration D- cellular respiration

39 An athlete needing a QUICK BURST of energy for a 50 yard dash is getting his/her ATP from A. cellular respiration B. alcoholic fermentation C. lactic acid fermentation D. electron transport C- lactic acid fermentation

40 Where does the FADH 2 produced here go next? Where does the ATP produced here go? to the Electron transport chain Used by cell for cellular activities

41 How many carbons are in a molecule of citric acid? 6 During long term exercise, like a marathon race or a soccer game, which pathway is used by your muscles to make ATP? Cellular respiration

42 Because the Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain REQUIRE oxygen, they are said to be _____________________ aerobic What happens to the NADH and FADH 2 produced during cellular respiration? Their electrons enter the Electron Transport Chain

43 Which ion is being pumped across the membrane at the purple arrows during electron transport ? H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+

44 1 NADH carrier produces ___ ATP from electron transport 3 Why does 1 molecule of FADH 2 produce only 2 ATP during electron transport? It comes in farther down the electron transport chain than NADH

45 Where does the Electron Transport Chain get the high energy electrons that are passed down the chain? From NADH and FADH 2 How does the location of the Electron Transport Chain differ in eukaryotes and prokaryotes? In eukaryotes it is in the inner mitochondrial membrane; in bacteria the chain is in the cell membrane remember...no membrane bound organelles in bacteria!

46 What happens to the lactic acid produced during intense exercise? it is broken down later when oxygen is available After glucose & glycogen stores are used up, cells start to burn ________ for energy. FAT

47 Name the reactants of cellular respiration O 2 and glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Name the products formed during cellular respiration H 2 0, carbon dioxide, energy (ATP)

48 Name the 4 products released during the Krebs cycle Name this reaction CO 2, NADH, FADH 2, ATP glycolysis

49 How many carbon atoms are in a molecule of glucose? 6 Name the stage of cellular respiration that follows glycolysis Krebs cycle

50 Where does this Reaction happen? Where will the pyruvic acid go next if oxygen is NOT present? In the cytoplasm Stays in cytoplasm and does fermentation

51 Where is the matrix in this diagram? The red molecule is the diagram is __________________ B ATP synthase

52 Another name for the inner membrane in a mitochondrion is the ________. What happens to the CO 2 produced in this reaction? cristae Released into atmosphere when we exhale DIAGRAM BY RIEDELL

53 Name the pathway H + ions and oxygen form water ________________ Lactic acid is formed in muscles ______________________ A glucose molecule is broken down into 2 pyruvic acid molecules _______________________ H + ions build up in the intermembrane space _________________________ Citric acid is broken down in a series of steps into CO 2 _____________________ Electron transport glycolysis Lactic acid fermentation Electron transport Krebs cycle

54 Name the pathway Alcohol and CO 2 are produced from pyruvic acid______ ________________ Acetyl Co-A joins a 4 carbon molecule to make citric acid ______________________ H + ions pass from the intermembrane space into the matrix to make ATP___________________ Oxygen acts as the last electron acceptor and makes water____________________ Alcoholic fermentation Electron transport Krebs cycle Electron transport

55 Where will the NADH produced in this reaction go next if oxygen is present? Where will the pyruvic acid go next if oxygen is present? To electron transport chain Into mitochondria and Krebs cycle

56 Where does this reaction happen? Where will the pyruvic acid go next if oxygen is NOT present? In the cytoplasm Stays in cytoplasm and does fermentation

57 Where does this Reaction happen? Where will the pyruvic acid go next if oxygen is NOT present? In the cytoplasm Stays in cytoplasm and does fermentation

58 What happens to the CO 2 produced in this reaction? Acetyl-CoA will join next with a 4 carbon molecule to make __________ Released into atmosphere when we exhale Citric acid

59 What reaction happens on the matrix side of the membrane when ATP synthase spins? A phosphate is added to ADP to make ATP


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