Presentation on theme: "Who was King Herod? How did he get into power? Revealing his true colors…. Hellenistic Jews: is that kosher?"— Presentation transcript:
Who was King Herod? How did he get into power? Revealing his true colors…. Hellenistic Jews: is that kosher?
Who was Herod? Went from governor of Galilee to the King of Israel (Judea) Rose to power in the Roman Civil War Reigned from 37 BCE to 4 BCE Known as a great and ambitious builder
Herods Building Projects Fortresses at Masada and Antonia Caesarea Building on top of Maarat Hamachpela Fortifications around Jerusalem Three towers at the entrance to the city Herodium- artificial mountain with palace on top
His most famous project Expansion, and refurbishment the second temple.
Herods Intentions His true intention for rebuilding the temple was an effort to lobby for support from the Jews. Dilemma: He had treated the Rabbinical figures cruelly, and wasnt popular among Jews He figured if he beautified something that the Rabbinical figures and every day folk indentified with as fundamental to Judaism, it would increase his approval ratings.
Temples Appearance: "He who has not seen Herod's building, has never in his life seen a truly grand building." (Talmud-Bava Basra 4a)
Appearance cont. Retaining wall around the temple added.Huge platform the size of 24 football fields fit within it.Kodesh Kodashim was covered in goldMarble used liberally Blue tinged marble and tapestries of white, blue, white, scarlet and purple made it look like The whole vista of the heavens according to Josephus
The reaction of the rabbinic leaders and the Jews to Herods plan. The Rabbis and the Jews opposed the construction because – Herod Wanted to integrate Hellenistic ideals into Judaism – Jews werent happy about extra taxes levied to pay for the building – The Jewish people and their Rabbis considered Herod as a destroyer of their traditional institutions – They viewed him as a murderer of their kings and leaders and the representative of the foreign government. – He angered those loyal to the Torah. – The Rabbis feared that he would tear it down and not rebuild it
The rabbinic and Jewish reaction to the completed temple and to Herod. Jews thought it was objectively beautiful (as seen by quote above in Bava Basra) – "One who did not see Herod's Temple missed seeing the most beautiful building in the world. It was constructed entirely of polished granite interspersed with dark-colored marble, with beveled edges, set in plaster. Herod even proposed to fill up the edges with gold; but the Rabbis advised him to abstain from doing so, as the white plaster combined with the granite and marble gave the Temple the appearance of waves of the sea" (Suk. 57b). Despite the positive reaction to the beauty of the Temple the Jews were not satisfied because: – Herod put a pagan eagle from perched on the building – He murdered many prominent Rabbis After Herods death the Jews were so angry that an open rebellion was started against his heir until the latter lost his throne.
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