Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment2 Prejudices Teacher is looking at exams of colleagues… –What would my grades be? … and concludes… –My colleague is too nice, too demanding etc. Comparisons are important… Look at the whole package –Classes / lectures –exam –grades Rules Luzern: averages outside must be justified. Consequences?
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment3 Usual schedule 1.Teaching (along plan of subjects) 2.Teacher choses his exam questions 3.No taxation 4.Corrections using solutions of students 5.Grading based on a norm Diagnostics not considered (Teacher tries not to scandalize the colleagues…)
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment4 Ideal schedule 1.goals 2.taxation 3.Exam questions that represent the goals 4.Model solutions (good / wrong examples) 5.Model grading 6.AFTERWARDS planning / implementation of classes 7.exam 8.Assessements based on criteria
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment5 Elemente Goals / learning tasks Blooms taxonomy Assessments based on criteria vs. on norms Complete exam questions (Diagnostics according to Weinert)
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment6 Learning biography Coming to terms with ones own past is important What memories do you have of your exams / marks? Marks = wages of students…
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment7 retrospection Gymnasium 1972 A modern teacher explains his way of grading / marks Correction per class (set of students being taught as a group) points -> tally sheet Where is mark 4? –Gauss is stipulated –Average shall be 4.5 –Standard deviation was not mentioned (?) –Measure usually linear, maybe a bit flatter at low end Marks are unimportant as long as sufficient. My impression then: positive, transparent Now: partially unfair, very competitive class = based on NORM What can be done in a better way?
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment8 Taxonomie Bloom BEISPIELETextverarbeitung (Word) K1 WissenWelches ist der Shortcut für Speichern? K2 VerstehenWelchen Zweck haben Shortcuts? K3 AnwendenFinde mit Word heraus, welches der Shortcut für die Hilfe ist! K4 AnalysierenWeshalb sind solide Fertigkeiten im Tastaturschreiben für die Textverarbeitung nach wie vor wichtig? K5 SynthetisierenEntwerfe ein Bewerbungsschreiben für einen Ferien- Job! K6 BeurteilenVergleiche Textverarbeitung mit Word mit Star- Office?
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment10 There is an alternative assess performance … –according to criteria a priori OR –according to the results a posteriori? Why? Law of (big) numbers – small sample
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment11 Based on norms vs. criteria Normscriteria Test object Prüfobjekt Computation of marks Berechnung der Noten Reference value Bezugsgrösse Temporal validity Zeitliche Gültigkeit Choice of exam questions Auswahl der Prüfungsfragen
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment12 Basis on norms vs. criteria normscriteria Test object Prüfobjekt subjects taughtlearning goals Computation of marks Berechnung der Noten a posteriori distribution is known a priori according to taxed learning goals, the real distribution is not known Reference value Bezugsgrösse a certain school classideal / typical student Temporal validity Zeitliche Gültigkeit limiteddurable Choice of exam questions Auswahl der Prüfungsfragen estimation of the teacherderived from the learning goals
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment13 effects norm orientation strong – weak classes/years strong– weak individuals motivation of students satisfaction of students chances in life / selektion? Friend at ETH / Absolvent Eliteschule Paris: I dont expect justice…
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment14 Complete exam question (written) 1.introduction 2.enunciate the question precisely 3.formal structure of answer 4.measure / scale 5.Write down typical good / bad answers 6.Taxation
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment15 Hints for oral exams Written exams are more objective than oral exams 1.Prepare oral questions by writing them down. 2.Let the testee draw the exam questions. 3.Let the testee choose the order of the questions. 4.Maybe adjust error of assessment (f.e. good testee after bad etc.). 5.Examinator / co-examinator write down the marks independently. 6.Dont look at earlier grades.
Paul MiottiFDI - Assessment16 Diagnostics (source: Franz Weinert) Continuous evaluation of … –Progress / problems of individual students –Level of difficulty of learning tasks --> control of didactical action based on diagnostic knowledge Ex: Ask the teacher about the results of his exam tasks (before the exam): What will be the outcome of individual students? Heterogenous results…