8Why assess?to provide feedback to learners on their progress (e.g. what they have done well and what they need to improve)to provide feedback to learners on their achievement (ie how much they have learned at a particular point in time)to get information about learners' ability to understand or use target language structures or с vocabulary help teachers know how to help their learnersto get information about learners' skills developmentto find out whether learners like or dislike specific classroom activities (you could collect this information by asking and by observing)For diagnostic purposes: to use information about learners' strengths and weaknesses to provide information which can feed in to planningto let learners know what standards they need to reachto see whether learning objectives are being achievedto provide records for schoolsto provide information to parents
12Types of testsAchievement test - measure what learners have learnt on a language course - usually given at the end of the courseDiagnostic test - identify learners' strengths and weaknesses. Helps teachers to make decisions on what needs to be taughtObjective test - scored according to 'right' or 'wrong' answers, i.e., non-judgmental on part of examinersPlacement test - used before the beginning of courses, to determine learners' language levels' and based on this information 'place' them in the classes most appropriate for themOral test - measures learners' speaking abilitiesProficiency test - measures language ability and based on what is needed for a particular purpose, e.g., English for secretaries, English for car mechanics etcProgress test - measure learners' progress during a language courseSubjective test - compared to objective tests, the examiner judges learners' answersSummative test - end of year/end of course test measuring learners' overall achievement of course objectives
17Formal vs informal assessment Likely to be formalStandardizedCertificatesObjectiveLikely to be informal• Self-assessment informal - Subjective informalCould be both• Score usually formal, but may be used in informal assessment depending on the task typeProjects usually associated with informal, but learners in some countries can be formally assessed on project workPortfolio same case as for projectsReport usually associated with formai assessment, but reports can sometimes accompany informal assessmentsGrade formal associations but may also be given by some teachers in informal assessment
18Why use informal and formal assessment activities?