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Assessing Student Performance

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Presentation on theme: "Assessing Student Performance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessing Student Performance
OK Great Work! Assessing Student Performance Try this... Needs work

2 Performance Objective
Given a unit of instruction, develop a valid, reliable, criterion referenced student assessment instrument that scores at least 70 points on the evaluation checksheet..

3 Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and testing
Enabling Objectives Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and testing Differentiate between formative and summative assessment. Differentiate between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessment. Explain validity in student assessment. Explain reliability in student assessment. Plan for criterion-referenced assessment of student performance.

4 Why assess student performance?
Assign grades Gauge student progress and award credit for task completion Improve instruction Motivate students to work Provide feedback to students

5 Basics Evaluation - the general process of estimating student progress toward achieving performance objectives Measurement - the use of a specific tool to estimate an outcome Testing - one specific form of evaluation that uses a measurement tool to formally evaluate student performance

6 Methods of Assessment Testing
“Objective” “Subjective” Performance demonstration other than test Psychomotor Task Project Lab Skill Demonstration Higher-Level Cognitive Task Paper Portfolio Etc…

7 Testing is Either Formative or Summative

8 Formative Testing The process of using measurement tools to conduct evaluation for the purpose of IMPROVING student PERFORMANCE Student receives feedback of results Teacher considers results in planning subsequent instruction Grades are not recorded!!

9 Summative Testing The process of using measurement tools to conduct evaluation for the purpose of ASSIGNING student GRADES Student receives feedback of results Teacher considers results in planning subsequent instruction Grades are recorded

10 A Test Can Be Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced

11 Norm-Referenced Test Measures student performance against other students Student scores better or worse than other students Competition is between student and peers Grade is based on location on “the curve” Best students get “A,” poorest students fail

12 Normal Curve On most measures of human behavior, graphing individual results will result in a “bell-shaped,” or normal curve Most individual scores will fall toward the middle (mean) Fewer scores will fall toward the upper and lower ends Average Scores Highest Scores Lowest Scores

13 Making Test Norm Referenced
Make test intentionally difficult Average score should be about 50% Strong students should tend to score high and weak students should tend to score low Award As for highest scores, Fs for lowest scores, Cs for average scores

14 Criterion-Referenced Test
Measures student performance against predetermined standards Student meets or does not meet the standard Competition is between the student and the skill, knowledge, or ability Grade is based on accomplishment Everybody can earn a passing grade if they meet the standard

15 Making Tests Criterion-Referenced
Remember that a performance objective has a: Condition, Task, & Standard Criterion = Standard Write test items using performance objective standard statements and your test will be criterion-referenced Every objective  1 or more test items Every item  an objective Validity is assured

16 Characteristics of a Test
Validity Reliability Objectivity Discrimination (applies to norm-referenced test only) Comprehensiveness “Score-Ability”

17 Validity A valid test measures: what it is intended to measure
what the teacher intended for the students to learn what the teacher actually taught A valid test is FAIR

18 Questions about Validity
Does the test actually measure what you intend it to measure? Did you teach the content and skills that are being tested? Does the test require the student to know or do something other than what you intended and/or taught? Does some aspect of the test prevent the student who may know the material from responding correctly?

19 Example of Problem in Validity
You taught the names and uses of hand tools using lecture with overheads and handouts. But: On the test, you ask the students to describe how to maintain the tools in good condition. The problem is you taught one thing (names & uses) but tested knowledge of another (maintenance).

20 Another Example You taught the students to write resumes in the classroom and had them hand write their own resumes, but provided no computer instruction. But: You have them prepare their resumes on a computer and grade heavily on appearance. The problem is you are evaluating their word processing skills at least as much as their resume writing skills.

21 A Third Validity Problem
You intended to teach the students how to repair a small engine. You taught the lesson in the classroom using overheads, chalkboard, and a teacher demonstration. The students never touched an engine. But: On test day, you give them a disassembled engine to reassemble. The problem is you thought you taught a psychomotor skill, really taught only cognitive content, but are testing the psychomotor skill you never taught

22 Reliability A reliable test provides accurate and consistent results
Test reliability can be viewed from two perspectives: Student reliability Scorer reliability

23 Student Reliability Test items are readable and clear
Instructions are simple and unambiguous Responses test only knowledge of the subject matter and not test wiseness, reading ability, agility, or other unrelated trait

24 Scorer Reliability Items can be scored consistently
Same scorer would produce similar results on repeated evaluations Different scorers would produce similar results if working independently

25 Objectivity Objectively written Objectively administered
items are reliable items are valid Objectively administered Objectively Scored

26 Discrimination Important ONLY for norm-referenced testing
Test separates more knowledgeable students from less knowledgeable students Discriminating test is intended to reward best students and punish weakest students Ideal for using normal curve to interpret score

27 Comprehensiveness Assessment covers or samples all of the content
Every performance objective is represented Multiple items address each objective

28 Score-Ability Test has scorer reliability Scoring is easily completed
“Objective” items are easiest to score “Subjective” items can be scored “objectively”

29 Review Evaluation vs. Measurement vs. Testing
Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Formative or Summative Characteristics of a Test: Validity Reliability Objectivity Discrimination (applies to norm-referenced test only) Comprehensiveness “Score-Ability”

30 The Answer Rare to find an educator who claims to have the right answer, but…in Career and Technical Education Testing should be BOTH normative and summative AND Testing should be criterion-referenced

31 So What? Assessment can be positive or threatening
Do not use assessment as punishment or as a threat Use assessment to improve student performance and instruction Assign grades fairly: validly, reliably, objectively, and comprehensively

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