Presentation on theme: "Assessing Student Performance OK. Performance Objective Given a unit of instruction, develop a valid, reliable, criterion referenced student assessment."— Presentation transcript:
Assessing Student Performance OK
Performance Objective Given a unit of instruction, develop a valid, reliable, criterion referenced student assessment instrument that scores at least 70 points on the evaluation checksheet..
Enabling Objectives Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and testing Differentiate between formative and summative assessment. Differentiate between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced assessment. Explain validity in student assessment. Explain reliability in student assessment. Plan for criterion-referenced assessment of student performance.
Why assess student performance? Assign grades Gauge student progress and award credit for task completion Improve instruction Motivate students to work Provide feedback to students
Basics Evaluation - the general process of estimating student progress toward achieving performance objectives Measurement - the use of a specific tool to estimate an outcome Testing - one specific form of evaluation that uses a measurement tool to formally evaluate student performance
Methods of Assessment Testing –Objective –Subjective Performance demonstration other than test –Psychomotor Task Project Lab Skill Demonstration –Higher-Level Cognitive Task Paper Project Portfolio Etc…
Testing is Either Formative or Summative
Formative Testing The process of using measurement tools to conduct evaluation for the purpose of IMPROVING student PERFORMANCE Student receives feedback of results Teacher considers results in planning subsequent instruction Grades are not recorded!!
Summative Testing The process of using measurement tools to conduct evaluation for the purpose of ASSIGNING student GRADES Student receives feedback of results Teacher considers results in planning subsequent instruction Grades are recorded
A Test Can Be Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced
Norm-Referenced Test Measures student performance against other students Student scores better or worse than other students Competition is between student and peers Grade is based on location on the curve Best students get A, poorest students fail
Normal Curve On most measures of human behavior, graphing individual results will result in a bell-shaped, or normal curve Most individual scores will fall toward the middle (mean) Fewer scores will fall toward the upper and lower ends Lowest Scores Highest Scores Average Scores
Making Test Norm Referenced Make test intentionally difficult Average score should be about 50% Strong students should tend to score high and weak students should tend to score low Award As for highest scores, Fs for lowest scores, Cs for average scores
Criterion-Referenced Test Measures student performance against predetermined standards Student meets or does not meet the standard Competition is between the student and the skill, knowledge, or ability Grade is based on accomplishment Everybody can earn a passing grade if they meet the standard
Making Tests Criterion-Referenced Remember that a performance objective has a: –Condition, Task, & Standard Criterion = Standard Write test items using performance objective standard statements and your test will be criterion-referenced –Every objective 1 or more test items –Every item an objective Validity is assured
Characteristics of a Test Validity Reliability Objectivity Discrimination (applies to norm-referenced test only) Comprehensiveness Score-Ability
Validity A valid test measures: –what it is intended to measure what the teacher intended for the students to learn what the teacher actually taught A valid test is FAIR
Questions about Validity Does the test actually measure what you intend it to measure? Did you teach the content and skills that are being tested? Does the test require the student to know or do something other than what you intended and/or taught? Does some aspect of the test prevent the student who may know the material from responding correctly?
Example of Problem in Validity You taught the names and uses of hand tools using lecture with overheads and handouts. But: On the test, you ask the students to describe how to maintain the tools in good condition. The problem is you taught one thing (names & uses) but tested knowledge of another (maintenance).
Another Example You taught the students to write resumes in the classroom and had them hand write their own resumes, but provided no computer instruction. But: You have them prepare their resumes on a computer and grade heavily on appearance. The problem is you are evaluating their word processing skills at least as much as their resume writing skills.
A Third Validity Problem You intended to teach the students how to repair a small engine. You taught the lesson in the classroom using overheads, chalkboard, and a teacher demonstration. The students never touched an engine. But: On test day, you give them a disassembled engine to reassemble. The problem is you thought you taught a psychomotor skill, really taught only cognitive content, but are testing the psychomotor skill you never taught
Reliability A reliable test provides accurate and consistent results Test reliability can be viewed from two perspectives: –Student reliability –Scorer reliability
Student Reliability Test items are readable and clear Instructions are simple and unambiguous Responses test only knowledge of the subject matter and not test wiseness, reading ability, agility, or other unrelated trait
Scorer Reliability Items can be scored consistently Same scorer would produce similar results on repeated evaluations Different scorers would produce similar results if working independently
Objectivity Objectively written –items are reliable –items are valid Objectively administered Objectively Scored
Discrimination Important ONLY for norm-referenced testing Test separates more knowledgeable students from less knowledgeable students Discriminating test is intended to reward best students and punish weakest students Ideal for using normal curve to interpret score
Comprehensiveness Assessment covers or samples all of the content Every performance objective is represented Multiple items address each objective
Score-Ability Test has scorer reliability Scoring is easily completed Objective items are easiest to score Subjective items can be scored objectively
Review Evaluation vs. Measurement vs. Testing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Formative or Summative Characteristics of a Test: –Validity –Reliability –Objectivity –Discrimination (applies to norm-referenced test only) –Comprehensiveness –Score-Ability
The Answer Rare to find an educator who claims to have the right answer, but…in Career and Technical Education Testing should be BOTH normative and summative AND Testing should be criterion-referenced
So What? Assessment can be positive or threatening Do not use assessment as punishment or as a threat Use assessment to improve student performance and instruction Assign grades fairly: validly, reliably, objectively, and comprehensively