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The Present Subjunctive and the Present Perfect Subjunctive
The formation of the present tense subjunctive will be easy for you because it is exactly the same as the formal commands! This time, you can follow the rule for more endings than just Usted and Ustedes. Remember, since you are switching endings, the –car, -gar, -zar rules apply!
Take the yo form, drop the O, add the opposite ending. COMER
For -ir stem-changing verbs, the stem change in the nosotros form follows these patterns: o ue verbs change o u; e ie verbs change e i; e:i verbs change e i. Remember dormir and durmiendo? DORMIR
Irregulars Dar _____________ Estar ________________ Ir _______________ Saber _________________ Ver _________________ (irreg yo) Decir ________________ Conocer ______________________
A lil something from studyspanish.com… “All too frequently, the topic of the subjunctive is made far more difficult than is necessary. Let's try a slightly different approach, with the goal of making this topic less troublesome. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. The subjunctive mood is rarely used in English, but it is widely used in Spanish” (http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/subj1.htm)
Here are some examples of the subjunctive being used in English: 1. The doctor recommends that he take the pills with food. Subjunctive conjugation: ___________________________ 2. The law requires that you be 18 years old to vote. Subjunctive conjugation: ___________________________ 3. My mom wants me to go to the store. Subjunctive conjugation: __________________________
So now, on to USING the subjunctive with impersonal expressions: Impersonal expression (this is the “trigger”) + que + new subject + present subjunctive of the verb It’s important that you study. (are you definitely studying? No. This person speaking feels that it’s important, but you can’t say “estudias” because that means you definitely study. The subjunctive is going to open up the idea that there is no guarantee here). In Spanish: Es importante que tú estudies. It’s important that you study (for you to study)
Sometimes in English we don’t say things exactly grammatically correct, so sometimes instead of “that” we use “for (subject) to.” Ex: It’s necessary for you guys to get good grades on this quiz = what you are really saying is “it is necessary that you all get good grades on this quiz.” Es necesario que ustedes saquen buenas notas en esta prueba.
You need the subjunctive with impersonal expressions when you have two different subjects: It’s = one subject. Then you have the expression like “important” or “interesting” and then you have QUE, then a new subject like a different person or thing, then the subjunctive form of the new verb: Subject /expression + QUE + new subject + subjunctive It’s sad that Jacinta is not in school today = Es triste QUE Jacinta no esté en la escuela hoy.
Doubt, denial, desire, demands, impersonal expressions = all subjunctive! Decide si la frase necesita “S” para el subjuntivo o “I” para el indicativo. I want that____ He demands that ____ It’s good that ____ I know that ____ It’s important that ____ It’s definitely true that ____ It’s necessary that ____ It’s sad that _____ It’s terrible that ______ I need to think ____ It’s important to spend time with friends ___ It’s good for her to spend time with friends ____ It’s a shame to fail a test ____ It’s a shame that fails tests ____ I want to help ___ I want them to help me____
It may be helpful for you to rewrite sentences in English to be sure you know that it fits this model with the “que” plus a different subject: It’s important for her to study Spanish in college= rewritten in ENGLISH = __________________________________________ ____________________________ Now, the Spanish version with subjunctive: __________________________________________ ____________________________
It’s logical for him to arrive late tonight. = Eng = _______________________________________________ _______________________ Span = _______________________________________________ _______________________ It’s strange that she eats lunch alone. _______________________________________________ _______ It’s better for us to go to the store now. _______________________________________________ _______________________
It’s a shame that they don’t know the new student. ___________________________________________ ___________________________ It’s important for her to come to class on time. ___________________________________________ ___________________________ It’s dangerous that your dad doesn’t use a helmet! ___________________________________________ ___________________________
Some expressions that are NOT used with the subjunctive: It’s true that Spanish class is awesome. It is obvious that there is snow outside. There is no doubt that the students have played in the snow.
The present perfect subjunctive You’ve already learned that to form the present perfect in the indicative, you take the present tense of “Haber” and attach a past participle of the verb. Ejemplo: He hablado con mi madre. = I have spoken with my mother.
The subjunctive mood also has a present perfect tense! To form it, you use the present subjunctive of “Haber” plus the same past participles of the verbs.
You use the present perfect subjunctive to indicate that the subordinate clause (the one that depends on the other clause; often second) took place in the past. It’s possible that he’ll go to the store: So: It’s possible = present. “that” (connects the clauses) he (may/will) go to the store. Es posible (presente) “que” (conecta) él vaya a la tienda. <- subjunctive!! This entire sentence is in the present tense.
VS: present perfect It’s possible that he went to the store. It’s possible = present. “that” (connects the clauses) he went (past) to the store. You can’t have present and past in the same sentence so what they do is use the present perfect of the subjunctive to make it like it happened in the past. It’s possible = present. “that” (connects the clauses) he has gone (pres. perf) to the store. Es posible (presente) “que” (conecta) él haya ido a la tienda. (present perfect subjunctive!)
Present Subjunctive: Es posible que Romeo visite a Julieta. = It’s possible that Romeo is visiting/will visit Juliet. Present Perfect Subjunctive: Es posible que Romeo haya visitado a Julieta. = It’s possible that Romeo has visited / visited Juliet.
Present Subjunctive: Es bueno que hagas eso. = It’s good that you are doing/will do that. Present Perfect Subjunctive: Es bueno que hayas hecho eso. = It’s good that you have done/did that.
Present subjunctive: It’s good for her to buy food at the market _______________________________________ _________________________________ Present perfect subjunctive: 1a. It’s good that she bought food at the market: _______________________________________ ___________________________
2.It’s a shame that she has to study tonight. ________________________________________ ____________________________________ 2a. It’s a shame that she had to study tonight. ________________________________________ ______________________________
3.It’s important to start the test at 4:30 pm. _______________________________________ _______________________________ a.It’s important for them to start the test. _______________________________________ _______________________________ b.It’s important that she started the test. _______________________________________ _______________________________
Try these! You may have to add a “that” in ENGLISH to better understand! Watch TENSES. 1. Es una lástima que ellos no ______________________ (arrived/have arrived) 2. Es probable que Martina _____________________ (prepared/has prepared) un pastel.
3.It’s doubtful that he studied/has studied for the exam. ________________________________________________ ________________ 4.I’m very sorry that you ate the apple. (have eaten) ________________________________________________ _________________________ 5. Josefina denies that she cheated (hacer trampas). ________________________________________________ __________________
12. It’s good that you studied a lot!_______________________________________ 13. It’s good for you to study a lot. _______________________________________ _______________________________________
6.It’s a shame that he arrived late. ______________________________________________ __________________________ 7.It’s good that you studied (have studied) for this test! ______________________________________________ __________________________ 8.It’s logical for her to spend time with her friends. ______________________________________________ __________________________________
9. It’s necessary to work a lot to earn/win money. __________________________________________ ______________________________________ 10.It’s dangerous to travel alone! __________________________________________ ______________________________________ 11.It’s dangerous for us to travel alone. __________________________________________ ______________________________________