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Capítulo 8: gramática Repaso…… El subjuntivo con verbos y frases de emoción, opinión y recomendación.

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Presentation on theme: "Capítulo 8: gramática Repaso…… El subjuntivo con verbos y frases de emoción, opinión y recomendación."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capítulo 8: gramática Repaso…… El subjuntivo con verbos y frases de emoción, opinión y recomendación

2 What you already know about the subjunctive mood / It’s not a tense, i.e. does not refer to time, rather it is a mood. / You have learned the present tense of the subjunctive. / The present subjunctive is used only in special cases. / It’s not a tense, i.e. does not refer to time, rather it is a mood. / You have learned the present tense of the subjunctive. / The present subjunctive is used only in special cases.

3 When to use the subjunctive mood / When you have a sentence made up of two phrases, joined together by que. / When the subject of the first phrase is different from the subject of the second phrase. / When in the first phrase there is a ‘key’ verb or phrase to provoke the use of the subjunctive. / When you have a sentence made up of two phrases, joined together by que. / When the subject of the first phrase is different from the subject of the second phrase. / When in the first phrase there is a ‘key’ verb or phrase to provoke the use of the subjunctive.

4 When to use the subjunctive mood / So far we’ve seen  verbs of volition or persuasion / those verbs where someone is imposing their will on someone or something else / recomendar, querer, preferir, prohibir, insistir en que, … Juan recomienda que nosotros vayamos de vacaciones este mes. / In the sentence above: / What is the subjunctive form used? / What is the verb that this form comes from? / What are the three reasons why the subjunctive form is used in this sentence? / So far we’ve seen  verbs of volition or persuasion / those verbs where someone is imposing their will on someone or something else / recomendar, querer, preferir, prohibir, insistir en que, … Juan recomienda que nosotros vayamos de vacaciones este mes. / In the sentence above: / What is the subjunctive form used? / What is the verb that this form comes from? / What are the three reasons why the subjunctive form is used in this sentence?

5 More instances to use the subjunctive / In addition to verbs of volition, the subjunctive is also used with verbs that express an emotion or some kind of an opinion. / alegrarse (de) to be glad (about)  esperarto hope  gustarto be pleasing to  molestarto bother / preocuparse (de)to be worried (about) / quejarse (de)to complain (about) / sentir (ie)to be sorry / sorprenderto surprise / tener miedo (de)to be afraid (of) / alegrarse (de) to be glad (about)  esperarto hope  gustarto be pleasing to  molestarto bother / preocuparse (de)to be worried (about) / quejarse (de)to complain (about) / sentir (ie)to be sorry / sorprenderto surprise / tener miedo (de)to be afraid (of)

6 Subjunctive with verbs of emotion / Nos alegramos de que las vacaciones vengan pronto. / La profesora espera que todos sus estudiantes lean esta presentación. / A la profesora no le gusta que sus estudiantes no hagan sus tareas. / Los estudiantes se preocupan de que la profesora les dé una prueba muy difícil. / Los estudiantes se quejan de que la profesora les asigne mucha tarea. / La profe siente que sus estudiantes no puedan ir a muchas fiestas. / A la profe le sorprende que sus estudiantes hablen tan bien el español. / Todos nosotros tenemos miedo de que no haya tanto tiempo para las vacaciones. / Nos alegramos de que las vacaciones vengan pronto. / La profesora espera que todos sus estudiantes lean esta presentación. / A la profesora no le gusta que sus estudiantes no hagan sus tareas. / Los estudiantes se preocupan de que la profesora les dé una prueba muy difícil. / Los estudiantes se quejan de que la profesora les asigne mucha tarea. / La profe siente que sus estudiantes no puedan ir a muchas fiestas. / A la profe le sorprende que sus estudiantes hablen tan bien el español. / Todos nosotros tenemos miedo de que no haya tanto tiempo para las vacaciones.

7 More contexts to use the subjunctive: Impersonal expressions / Following are some common impersonal expressions that may require the use of the subjunctive. / es preferible queit’s preferable (that) / es bueno /malo queit’s good/bad (that) / es importanteit’s important (that) / es (im)posibleit’s impossible (that) / es lógicoit’s logical (that) / es mejorit’s better (that) / es necesarioit’s necessary (that) / es ridículoit’s ridiculous (that) / es una lástimait’s a shame (that)

8 Mas…. / We don’t use subjunctive after those expressions that express truth……. / es cierto que… / Es verdad que… / Es obvio que…. / Es evidente que… / We don’t use subjunctive after those expressions that express truth……. / es cierto que… / Es verdad que… / Es obvio que…. / Es evidente que…

9 More contexts to use the subjunctive: Impersonal expressions / Notice that these impersonal expressions carry special meanings, namely volition or emotion. Consider the following: / Recomiendo que Juan visite a sus padres. / Es importante que Juan visite a sus padres / Notice that while using different words, each of the above sentences express essentially the same meaning (volition): that someone wants Juan to visit his parents. / The difference is that in the first case, I am specifically stating that I recommend that Juan visit his parents, and in the second case, I don’t ‘own’ that recommendation. I just state that “it’s important that…” / Notice that these impersonal expressions carry special meanings, namely volition or emotion. Consider the following: / Recomiendo que Juan visite a sus padres. / Es importante que Juan visite a sus padres / Notice that while using different words, each of the above sentences express essentially the same meaning (volition): that someone wants Juan to visit his parents. / The difference is that in the first case, I am specifically stating that I recommend that Juan visit his parents, and in the second case, I don’t ‘own’ that recommendation. I just state that “it’s important that…”

10 More contexts to use the subjunctive: Impersonal expressions / When you consider the impersonal expressions presented, you will notice that each expresses either volition/persuasion or emotion/opinion. / Write each of the following expressions on your paper and next to each write [V] if its meaning represents volition/persuasion or [E] if it expresses an emotion/opinion. / When you consider the impersonal expressions presented, you will notice that each expresses either volition/persuasion or emotion/opinion. / Write each of the following expressions on your paper and next to each write [V] if its meaning represents volition/persuasion or [E] if it expresses an emotion/opinion. / es preferible quees bueno /malo que / es importante quees (im)posibleque / es lógico quees mejor que / es necesario quees ridículo que / es una lástima que

11 More contexts to use the subjunctive: Impersonal expressions / The rules about when to use impersonal expressions with the subjunctive are then the same as those that you have already learned for other verbs. / There must be a complex sentence made of two parts / The impersonal expression must express one of the key meanings to trigger the subjunctive: volition/persuasion, or emotion/opinion / es bueno que, es necesario que, es importante que… / The sentence must have two parts: an impersonal expression + a second phrase with a subject and a conjugated verb and both parts must be linked by a conjunction, i.e. que / Es importante que nosotros nos divirtamos en clase. / The rules about when to use impersonal expressions with the subjunctive are then the same as those that you have already learned for other verbs. / There must be a complex sentence made of two parts / The impersonal expression must express one of the key meanings to trigger the subjunctive: volition/persuasion, or emotion/opinion / es bueno que, es necesario que, es importante que… / The sentence must have two parts: an impersonal expression + a second phrase with a subject and a conjugated verb and both parts must be linked by a conjunction, i.e. que / Es importante que nosotros nos divirtamos en clase.

12 When not to use the subjunctive with impersonal expressions: / If the conditions for subjunctive are not met / Es importante tomar las vacaciones cada año. / Here we use the expression + the verb tomar in the infinitive because there is no explicit subject for this verb. The translation is: It’s important to take a vacation each year. The sentence does not specify that you, me, we, or they should take a vacation. Since we do not have a specific subject for the verb tomar, we do not have a complex sentence, we do not need the conjunction que and we therefore do not use the subjunctive. / The above example contrasts with the following: / Es importante que Juan tome las vacaciones cada año. / Here we do have a subjecto for the verb tomar. This sentence does not state that it is generally important for anyone to take a vacation, but rather it states that it is important that specifically Juan take the vacation. / If the conditions for subjunctive are not met / Es importante tomar las vacaciones cada año. / Here we use the expression + the verb tomar in the infinitive because there is no explicit subject for this verb. The translation is: It’s important to take a vacation each year. The sentence does not specify that you, me, we, or they should take a vacation. Since we do not have a specific subject for the verb tomar, we do not have a complex sentence, we do not need the conjunction que and we therefore do not use the subjunctive. / The above example contrasts with the following: / Es importante que Juan tome las vacaciones cada año. / Here we do have a subjecto for the verb tomar. This sentence does not state that it is generally important for anyone to take a vacation, but rather it states that it is important that specifically Juan take the vacation.

13 One more context for the subjunctive / There is another phrase that expresses a desire with which we use the subjunctive / Ojalá que / It is an idiom originally from Arabic / Oh Allah (may God grant) / Translates to English as: / I/we hope / Let’s hope / If only / There is another phrase that expresses a desire with which we use the subjunctive / Ojalá que / It is an idiom originally from Arabic / Oh Allah (may God grant) / Translates to English as: / I/we hope / Let’s hope / If only

14 One more context for the subjunctive / The subjunctive is always used with Ojalá / Ojalá que no haya clases mañana. / Ojalá que haga buen tiempo mañana. / Ojalá que mis padres no me visiten este fin de semana. / The subjunctive is always used with Ojalá / Ojalá que no haya clases mañana. / Ojalá que haga buen tiempo mañana. / Ojalá que mis padres no me visiten este fin de semana.

15 ¡Manos a la obra! / Translate the sentences on the next slide into Spanish. You must decide if the sentence requires the subjunctive or not, so take a moment to recall the rules for using the subjunctive.

16 Translate into Spanish: / We are worried that San Marcos has too much congestion. / It’s necessary to grow more trees. / They complain that there is no public transportation in San Marcos. / It’s logical that Miguel wants to move to the country. / Let’s hope that we lead a peaceful life. / I don’t like traffic. / It bothers us that San Diego is a metropolis. / I’m sorry that we can’t control the overpopulation. / We are worried that San Marcos has too much congestion. / It’s necessary to grow more trees. / They complain that there is no public transportation in San Marcos. / It’s logical that Miguel wants to move to the country. / Let’s hope that we lead a peaceful life. / I don’t like traffic. / It bothers us that San Diego is a metropolis. / I’m sorry that we can’t control the overpopulation.


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