Resistance to Imperialism Natives of Africa, Asia, and Oceania –Liked improvements made by imperialist rulers roads, railroads, schools, peace, etc. –Disliked the way they were treated by rulers Wanted to rule themselves Disliked racism of imperialist nations Felt foreign culture was being forced on them –Sometimes fought against imperialism Most natives were easily defeated –Industrialized nations were more united and had better weapons and technology Some natives put up fierce resistance
India “The Jewel of the Crown” for the British Empire
Britain’s Empire in India Britain established the East India Trading Company which ran India’s colony. EIC took over India by: –Forcing out the competition (France) –Buying up land –Buying off politicians –Establishing military rule
India Britain brought many European ideas to India. The Indian natives felt oppressed by the British as they did not have the same rights. The Sepoy (Indian soldiers in the EIC Army) rebelled but were quickly beaten. Afterwards, Britain took control of the entire country of India.
Pros and Cons to British Rule Pros of British Rule –Efficient gov’t –Railroads –More schools –Postal service –Telegraph Cons of British Rule –Natives = 2 nd class citizens –Cheap British textiles ruined local industry –Farmers forced to grow cotton instead of food No food = mass starvation
The Scramble for Africa During the late 1800s Europeans began exploring the interior parts of Africa By the 1880s, European nations were racing to colonize African lands Africa was the last continent colonized.
Europe Divides Africa Africa had a thriving slave trade since the 1500s; by the 1800s slavery was deemed wrong (by Europe) and ended. Other trade began (gold, timber, hides, palm oil). The Suez Canal was built to provide a shorter water route to India and East Asia.
King Leopold II of Belgium Said he wanted to improve the lives of C. Africans. Meant he wanted to forcibly control rubber plantations. Other Europeans followed his example. –By 1914, Liberia (founded by freed black slaves) and Ethiopia remained independent.
The United States’ Empire Hawaiian queen was overthrown by Americans; Hawaii forcibly (and illegally) added to the US US helped Panama rebel against Colombia in exchange for allowing the US to build the Panama Canal –Canal connects the Atlantic and Pacific
Japanese Imperialism During the 1400s Japan was in turmoil Three powerful rulers restored a strong central gov’t to Japan. Oda Nobunaga- seized the capital, controlled the shogun (king), and spread his rule Toyotomi Hideyoshi- used guns to unify Japan; expelled/persecuted Christians Tokugawa Ieyasu-used guns to unify Japan; isolated Japan from most outsiders
Japan Opens Up Since the 1600’s, Japan had practiced a policy of isolationism, in which it cut itself off from the outside world In the 1850’s, the United States Navy forced Japan to open its ports to trade
Commodore Matthew Perry Arrived in Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay) with four warships “Persuaded” Japan to open trade w/ US
The Meiji Restoration (late 1800s – early 1900s) Emperor Mutsuhito aka Meiji (Enlightened) emperor. –Determined to make Japan a great power –Set up a constitutional monarchy –Est. a modern army/navy –Improved roads –Opened schools Education mandatory for all –Began industrialization
Japanese Empire Japan vs China –Competed for trading rights in Korea –Japan defeated China and took control of Korea and Manchuria –Received Taiwan Japan vs Russia (Russo-Japanese War) –Russia tried to step in and take control of Korea and Manchuria –Japan defeated Russia and became a world power –Received Port Arthur and part of Sakhalin Island