Presentation on theme: "Science Science is The process of trying to understand the world A way of knowing, thinking and learning Based on observation and experimentation."— Presentation transcript:
Science is The process of trying to understand the world A way of knowing, thinking and learning Based on observation and experimentation An organized body of knowledge › facts, theories and laws Important to society
Scientific inquiry is the process by which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather. The process uses the scientific method which consists of several steps. Scientists then take these scientific discoveries and apply it in many ways particularly, technology Technology involves the design of products, systems and processes that affect the quality of life using the knowledge of science.
The scientific inquiry process starts with asking questions that result either from observations or problems that may occur. Using inference, previous knowledge, and research that is already known about a subject, they then develop a hypothesis What would happen…? Why ? What’s the problem? i.e. I observe my tv won’t go on when I press the remote. What’s the problem?
Using inference, previous knowledge, that is already known about a subject, scientists then develop a hypothesis. i.e. I know that the remote has batteries. Maybe they need to be changed. If a scientist has no or little previous knowledge, he or she then researches to see what has already been found out about the subject. i.e. I can look up what can be wrong with my remote.
A hypothesis is a possible explanation or educated “guess” that answers a scientific question. In science, a hypothesis must be testable, meaning researchers must be able to carry out investigations and gather evidence to support or disprove the hypothesis. Personal opinions, emotions, motivational reactions, or dealing with the supernatural are not scientific because they cannot be tested. It is typically stated as an “If and then statement”. i.e. If I change the batteries in my remote, then the tv will go on.
To test a hypothesis, you must design an experiment. The scientist decides how she or he will test the hypothesis. Experiments deal with variables, or the factors that you need to do the experiment. A controlled experiment has only one variable that is purposely changed to test the hypothesis. i.e. I am only going to test the batteries in my remote. Here’s my design- 1 st take out old batteries (recycle later) 2 nd put in new batteries (check date) 3 rd turn on tv
The one variable that a scientist is changing, adding, or taking away, is the independent, or manipulated variable. It is being tested to see if that is what makes the difference. The factor that may change in response to the independent (manipulated) variable is called the dependent, or responding variable. It is important to change only one variable at a time to determine if that factor is truly creating the desired results of the experiment. i.e I will change the batteries, get another tv, and unplug it ang plug it back in again. WHOA!
All the other variables in the experiment must stay exactly the same. They are called constants, or constant variables. A controlled experiment must have a control, or something to compare with. For example, if you change the amount of water a plant gets to see how it will grow, you will have one plant with no change (control group) in how much water it gets, and one plant with the amount of water changed. (independent variable). i.e. Same tv, same remote, same person using the remote, same place remote is being used
A good experiment will have operational definitions. An operational definition is a statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term. For example, if using paper in an experiment, the scientist must write down what color, size and type of paper was used. i.e.- 81/2 x 11, black construction paper. Do you think it would make a difference what kind of paper you used to make a paper airplane? i.e. In our remote problem are you using lithium batteries, alkaline batteries, etc. Are you changing one or both?
Data are facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations. Observations may be quantitative- dealing with numbers, like 5 meters, 2 hours, etc. Or they can be qualitative, or descriptive, like blue, rough, small, cold, concrete, plastic, etc.
A data table, such as a graph, provides you with an organized way to collect and record your observations during an experiment. Graphs can reveal patterns and trends and can help scientists to analyze or interpret the information. What questions do you think these scientists asked and what did they do to get this data? Can you analyze the results?
After being collected and analyzed, data is interpreted and a conclusion, or summary of what was learned from the experiment, is drawn. The results are communicated or shared with others through writing and speaking.
It is important that scientists write precisely and accurately in order for other scientists to be able to repeat their experiments and build off them. They use the same measuring units called the metric system, or SI units. (Systeme Internationale- International System of Units) The conclusions will become part of scientific theory or scientific law.
A scientific theory is a well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results. It tells WHY. It cannot be considered a law because future testing may prove it to be wrong. A scientific law is a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. It tells WHAT. Unlike a theory, a scientific law describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it. An example would be the law of gravity. Scientists cannot explain why it works but only describe what it does.
One reason to study scientific theories and laws is to have scientific literacy. Having scientific literacy means that you understand basic scientific terms and principles well enough that you can : evaluate information, make personal decisions, and take part in public affairs making laws regarding scientific discoveries and technologies