Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method: DR HERC"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Scientific Method: DR HERC The Scientific Method refers to the basic steps scientists use to solve problems…D(D)etermine the ProblemRGather (R)esearchHForm a (H)ypothesisECarry Out an (E)xperimentRecord and Analyze the (R)esultsCDraw a (C)onclusion
2 Step 1: Determine the Problem A good science problem is written as a question, and is one that you can test to find the answer*This is the purpose of your investigationWhat is the problem or question posed in the “Octopus Pregnancy?”Is it possible for an octopus egg to survive and grow in a human stomach
3 Step 2: Gather Research Gather data to help you form your hypothesis Research what others have already discovered about your problem (books, magazines, reports, experts, etc.)Observation – using one or more of your senses to collect dataInference – an interpretation of an observation based on evidence or prior knowledgeWhat information did Adam and Jamie gather before beginning their experiment?
4 Step 3: Form a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a possible explanation of, or answer to your scientific questionWorded as an “If…then…because…” statementMUST be testableMUST be based on researchWill be supported or disproved by experimentationWhat was Adam and Jamie’s hypothesis? What did you think would happen?
5 Step 4: Carry Out Experiment Materials ListDetailed list of all supplies needed to carry out your experimentInclude amounts needed of each supplyProcedures ListStep-by-step instructions for how to carry out experimentMust be detailed enough so your experiment could be repeated by someone else
6 They also include… a CONTROL Controls are things that do not change throughout the experimentThese are kept the same throughout each trialWhat things did Adam and Jamie keep constant throughout their experiment?
7 What variables did Adam and Jamie include in their experiment? As well as… VARIABLESA variable is a factor that can change in an experimentYou may only change one at a time!An independent variable is the one and only variable you’re allowed to change in your experiment this is the variable being tested (x-axis on a graph)A dependent variable is the factor that changes because of your independent variable this is the observed variable (y-axis on a graph)What variables did Adam and Jamie include in their experiment?
8 Step 4: Carry Out an Experiment Now you may design and carry out an experiment to test your hypothesisDetermine controlsConsider all possible variablesMust include at least two trials???How did the Mythbusters team carry out their experiment?
9 How did Adam and Jamie check and interpret their results? Step 5: Record your DataRecording accurate observations and measurements are necessary to carrying out a valid experimentOnce recorded, you can organize your dataPerform any necessary calculationsCreate charts/graphs/data tables to organize dataConsider sources of errorHow did Adam and Jamie check and interpret their results?
10 Step 6: Draw a Conclusion Interpret your charts, tables, or graphs to help you draw your conclusionsAnswer your question using data as evidenceNo octopus here…Based on the data you have gathered, were you able to find the answer to your question?If so, was your hypothesis correct?If no, what other experiment(s) could help you retest your theory?What conclusion can be drawn as a result of this experiment?
11 Scientific TheoryScientific Theory is an explanation of how or why something happens based on scientific knowledge resulting from repeated observations and experimentsA theory is based on thousands of experiments carried out by many different scientistsIt can be proven to be incorrect as new knowledge is gained from further experiments
12 Scientific LawA Scientific Law is a statement about how something works that seems to be true all of the timeTells what will happen, but does not necessarily explain whyIs less likely to change than a Scientific Theory