2 The U.S. – A Nation of Immigrants Old immigrants: 1800 – 1880Most came from Northern & Western Europe.Most were Protestants.Most came for economic opportunity.Included 25,000 Chinese immigrants during the gold rush.New Immigrants: 1880 – 1910Most came from Southern & Eastern Europe.Many different religions.Japanese & more Chinese immigrants arrived.Russian Jews were escaping religious persecution.
3 The Journey to AmericaMost immigrants were poor & traveled in steerage.Lowest deck: Dark, crowded, unsanitary.
4 Arrival in AmericaEllis Island: Immigration station in New York Harbor.Immigrants had to pass inspection before entering the U.S.Had to pass a medical exam or possibly be sent back.
5 Arrival ContinuedAngel Island: Immigration station in San Francisco Bay.Many Chinese immigrants detained for weeks.Held in prisonlike conditions.
6 Where Did Immigrants Settle? Most settled in crowded cities.Took low-paying, unskilled jobs.Lived in slums near the factories.Formed benevolent societies:Aid organizations to aid immigrants in need.Help them get jobs, health care, education.
7 Some Americans Felt Threatened Nativists believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans.Also believed they lowered pay standards.Denis Kearney formed the Workingmen’s Party, 1870s.Opposed Chinese immigration.1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act:Banned Chinese immigration for 10 yrs.Current Chinese immigrants could not get citizenship.
8 More Restrictions1907 President T. Roosevelt made a Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan:Japan would stop unskilled workers from immigrating to the U.S. if San Francisco stopped segregating Japanese schoolchildren.1917 Congress passed the Literacy Test:Immigrants were required to pass an English reading test before being admitted into the U.S.