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Ch. 20, Section 1 “A New Wave of Immigration”

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1 Ch. 20, Section 1 “A New Wave of Immigration”

2 Old Immigrants Old immigrants – name that was used in the late 1800s for immigrants who arrived in the mid-1800s They were from Northern Europe (Great Britain, Germany, Ireland, Scandinavia) They were mostly Protestant Many were skilled laborers and many were able to buy their own farms

3 New Immigrants New immigrants – they were part of a new wave of immigrants in the 1880s that were mostly from southern and eastern Europe There were fewer skilled laborers and they were generally poorer than those who arrived earlier They brought new cultures and religions to the U.S. Most found work in cities in the new industries of the time period

4 Arriving in a New Land Immigrants faced a difficult journey to America
Tickets were cheap, but they were crowded on ships and sickness and disease was common

5 Ellis Island Ellis Island was an immigrant processing center in New York Harbor It opened in 1892 and processed millions of immigrants from Europe over the next 40 years These processing centers interviewed and examined immigrants and turned away those with diseases or with legal problems (#3)

6 Other Immigration Centers
Angel Island – a West Coast immigrant processing center in San Francisco Bay It opened in 1910 and processed mostly Chinese immigrants These immigrants were detained longer than those at Ellis Island and more were sent back to where they were from Mexican immigrants came in large numbers in the late 1800s and came through El Paso, Texas (#5) Mexican immigrants found work in construction, in mills, in mines, and on large farms

7 Adjusting to a New Life Immigrants after arrival had to find homes and work and had to adjust to a new language and a new culture (#1) Chain migration – when immigrants moved into new neighborhoods with others from their old country so they could keep their language and culture after they arrived (Immigrant Neighborhoods #1)

8 Immigrant Neighborhoods
New immigrants published newspapers in their own neighborhoods and founded schools, clubs, and churches to help preserve their customs (#2) Immigrants opened local shops and small banks that often gave credit to new arrivals to help them as they started out (#3) Benevolent societies – aid organizations that offered immigrants help in cases of sickness, unemployment, or death (which wasn’t provided by govt. at the time)

9 Tenements tenements – poorly built over-crowded apartment buildings in cities which many immigrants lived in during the late 1800s Immigrants worked hard to adjust to their new country and their children learned more quickly as they attended public schools (#6) assimilation – process of immigrants adjusting to their new country and adopting the new country’s culture

10 Finding Work Most immigrants had been farmers, but in the US most couldn’t afford land so they got jobs in cities in manufacturing (#1) Few of the new immigrants had skills in industrial work and took low-paying, unskilled jobs with long hours (#2) Sweatshops – small shops or mills located in immigrant neighborhoods know for long hours for workers and hot, unhealthy working conditions in the late 1800s Some immigrants with skills and those with a little money to start small businesses became more successful than other immigrants (#4)

11 Opposition to Immigration
Some Americans welcomed new immigrants, particularly business people whose businesses profited from using lower paid immigrant workers (#1A) Anti-immigrant feelings rose in the late 1800s as people believed immigrants would take jobs away from native-born Americans (#1B) Nativists – Americans who held prejudices against other races and ethnic groups, who feared that too many immigrants were coming to the US and would destroy American culture

12 Opposition to Immigration (continued)
Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 law that banned Chinese people from immigrating to the US for 10 years (which was renewed for decades afterwards) Despite opposition, immigrants came in large numbers and helped power the industrial growth of the late 1800s and early 1900s

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