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Published byJoel Ryan Modified over 7 years ago
TOMORROW and WEDNESDAY You will need a blue pen, a black pen, and a red pen. Make sure you bring paper. Bring your notes from today!
The Schaffer Writing Method Learning to Write a Structured Essay
Essay A piece of writing that gives your thoughts (commentary) about a subject.
Introduction Also called the introductory paragraph The first paragraph of the essay Includes the thesis (which is usually at the end of the introduction)
Body Paragraph Where all of the important stuff is A middle paragraph in an essay It develops the point you want to make that supports your thesis
Concluding paragraph Also called the conclusion The last paragraph in your essay It may sum up your ideas, reflect on what you said in your essay, say more commentary about your subject, or give a personal statement about the subject.
Do’s and Don’ts of Conclusions A concluding paragraph DOES: – Include only commentary – Gives a finished feeling to your essay A concluding paragraph does NOT: – Include concrete detail (facts and examples) – Repeat key words from your essay – Restate your thesis – Sound like your introductory paragraph
Thesis 1-2 sentences containing the topic of your essay and your position or opinion on the topic Usually comes as the last sentence in your introduction
Prewriting The process of getting your main points down on paper before you organize your essay into paragraphs
How is a paragraph like a cheeseburger?
Topic Sentence Like the top bun on your hamburger. Topic Sentence = TS The first sentence in a body paragraph It must have a subject and opinion (commentary) for the paragraph all wrapped up into one tiny sentence It does the same thing to a paragraph that a thesis does for the whole essay – it tells you what that specific paragraph will be about
Concrete Details Like the meat of your cheeseburger Concrete details = CD The specific facts, examples, or details that form the backbone of your body paragraphs. These are NOT things that you make up. They are evidence.
Synonyms for Concrete Details Facts Specifics Examples Descriptions Illustrations Support Proof Evidence Quotations
Commentary Like the toppings on your cheeseburger Commentary = CM Your opinion or comments about the concrete detail. Why does that concrete detail prove my point? What does the statistic show? What does the example mean?
Synonyms for Commentary Opinion Insight Analysis Interpretation Personal response Feelings Reflection Explanation Evaluation Inference
Concluding Sentence Concluding Sentence = CS The last sentence in a body paragraph It is ALL commentary and does NOT repeat key words. It should give a finished feeling to the paragraph.
Shaping the Essay The step after prewriting This is done BEFORE writing the first draft of your essay – You are still mixing the ingredients of your hamburger – you aren’t ready to write your essay just yet You make an outline of your thesis, topic sentence, concrete details, and commentary ideas.
First Draft The first version of your essay (rough draft)
Final Draft The final version of your essay (after ALL revisions have been made)
Peer Response Written responses and reactions to your partner’s paper. What did they do well? What could they improve? ALWAYS KEEP IT POSITIVE, but don’t be afraid to give suggestions. Be specific and accurate. Have a good attitude when someone corrects your essay.
Chunk The smallest unified group of thoughts you can write in a paragraph. Chunk = topic sentence + 1 concrete detail (CD) + 2 commentaries (CM) EVERY body paragraph should have at least one chunk.
Ratio The number of commentaries for every concrete detail. Your ratio should be 1 part concrete detail (CD) and 2 parts commentary (CM). This is how you will be graded!!!!!
Word Count The minimum length per paragraph Your body paragraph should NEVER have less than three sentences (1 CD + 2 CM)
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