Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3, Section 2 The Constitutional Convention p. 86-91 After months of intense debate, delegates to the Constitutional Convention agree on a new plan."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3, Section 2 The Constitutional Convention p. 86-91 After months of intense debate, delegates to the Constitutional Convention agree on a new plan of government
Section Focus Question: What role did compromise play in the creation of the United States? HUGE!
The Convention Begins Main Idea: The original aim of the Constitutional Convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation. Delegates meet in Philadelphia “to revise the Articles of Confederation.” Votes and debates would be kept secret, meeting closed to the public – Washington named president of the Convention – Madison named secretary: kept very detailed notes 55 Delegates representing 12 states take part in the Convention – Only Rhode Island doesn’t send anyone. – Don’t show B of R video yet. The Key players Ben Franklin Roger Sherman Alexander Hamilton James Madison
The Virginia Plan Main Idea: The Virginia Plan sets forth an entirely new framework for the national government. Also known as the Randolph Plan, or the Large State Plan – Proposed by Edmund Randolph, drafted by James Madison Three separate branches of government – Legislative : to make the laws – Executive : to enforce the laws – Judicial : system of courts to interpret the laws Bicameral Legislature: two house congress Members to be determined by population. Edmund Randolph - Gov. of Virginia, Secretary of State, & U.S. Attorney General
QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION See p. 88 Roger Sherman of Connecticut believed the people “should have as little to do” with the election process as possible because they can be misled. James Wilson of Pennsylvania disagreed, stating the people are “not only the cornerstone, but the foundation of the fabric”. With whom do you most agree? Why? Roger Sherman James Wilson
The Great Compromise Main Idea: After fierce debate, delegates agree on a plan that satisfies both large and small states. compromise – an agreement in which each side gives up part of what it wants The population part of the Virginia Plan nearly killed the convention (and the nation) New Jersey Plan : small states want a single house legislature with equal representation The “Great” Compromise The “Great” Compromise - Roger Sherman also proposes a bicameral legislature – Senate – Senate (Upper house) with equal representation (2 per state) – House of Representatives – House of Representatives (Lower House) number of seats determined by state’s population. Small states happy now too
Debates Over Slavery Main Idea: Disputes among the delegates over slavery indicate just how deeply divided the North and South were. 5 slaves = 3 “Free-men” Three-Fifths Compromise: Each enslaved person would count as 3/5 ths of a free person in the National Census – Artificially inflates the number of seats in the House of Representatives in favor of Southern states for almost 80 years Importation of slaves from Africa and West Indies to end in 1808. – Doesn’t effect the slave trade within the U.S. at all
A New Constitution Main Idea: The Constitution of the United States derives its authority from “We the People of the United States.” Gouverneur Morris largely responsible for the Preamble (Introduction) of the U.S. Constitution. Benjamin Franklin (oldest delegate, 81) helps ensure Constitution’s passage at the Convention. Too weak to give speech, read by James Wilson. – “I agree to this Constitution with all of its faults.” - Benjamin Franklin 1787 p. 90
Section Focus Question: What role did compromise play in the creation of the United States? Delegates of the Constitutional Convention compromised on major issues that threatened to end the convention and possibly the U.S. to come up with a plan for a strong central (Federal) government.