Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jackson. Path to the Presidency Jackson served in both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 Jackson was nicknamed “Old Hickory” by his."— Presentation transcript:
Path to the Presidency Jackson served in both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 Jackson was nicknamed “Old Hickory” by his soldiers at New Orleans 1824 election – Jackson won popular vote, but did not get majority of electoral vote -House of Representatives would decide the race -Henry Clay gave his support to John Quincy Adams -Adams won / and he named Clay his Sec. of State -called the “corrupt bargain”
New Political Party Forms Jackson was not happy He created a new political party (Democratic Party) Adams became known as the National Republicans J.Q. Adams was not popular with the people Jackson, in contrast, was a “man of the people” -many states lifted voting (property) restrictions in the 1820s so that more poor people could vote
1828 Election Jackson easily defeats J.Q. Adams He was supported by ordinary American people Later, the use of political power by ordinary people became known as “Jacksonian Democracy” Once in office, Jackson replaced many officials with his supporters -This type of reward became known as the “spoils system” -But only 1 in 10 officials were replaced
Indian Removal Act Indians occupied major sections of the southeast US -5 tribes in southeast: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole This was limiting American settlement / farming Jackson concluded that the best solution was to relocate the Indians Indian Removal Act (1830) – would move 5 tribes to modern day Oklahoma
Indian Relocation US Army forced the Chocktaw, Creek, & Chickasaw to march west ¼ died en route (disease, malnutrition, exhaustion) Seminole Indians resisted -They hid in the swamps of Florida -They used hit & run fighting techniques -They were never officially defeated -Seminole indian descendants still live in Florida today.
Trail of Tears Cherokee Indians fought in court They sued the US gov’t stating that they should be respected as a foreign nation John Marshall refused to hear the case, saying that Cherokee were neither citizens nor a foreign country Cherokee Plan B – Sam Austin Worcester – white American and friend of the Cherokee -Georgia orders Worcester to leave Cherokee lands -Worcester refuses and goes to court for himself & the Cherokee Indians
Worcester v. Georgia 1832 – supreme court ruled against Georgia, denying them the right to take Cherokee lands Jackson was furious: “John Marshall has made his decision—now let him enforce it.” Getting around the Supreme Court ruling -U.S. gov’t officials signed treaties with some Cherokee leaders who favored relocation -4,000 Cherokee died along the relocation march -called “Trail of Tears” due to Cherokee suffering – hunger, disease, bandits, exposure
Second Bank of the U.S. Second Bank of US was born in 1816; given a 20 year charter Purpose was to regulate the rapidly growing state banks. Jackson believed that the constitution did not give Congress the authority to create the Bank -State banks were more likely to give loans to poorer farmers in the South & West (Jackson supporters) -National Bank was seen as supporting the interests of wealthy northern businesses
1832 Election Jackson defeats Clay by a huge margin In 1833, Jackson had his secretary of treasury take the money out of the National Bank and place it in the state banks -these banks called “pet banks” – loyal to Jackson -reduced Bank of US to just another state bank
Tariff Controversy Tariff created on British manufactured goods in 1816 -This import tax was raised in 1824 and 1828 Northern industry favored the tariff But Southern agricultural states disliked it -Tariff forced them to pay more for northern goods than to buy cheaper (before tariff) British goods John Calhoun – V.P. – against the tariff -proposed idea that states could nullify, or reject, any law passed by Congress that violated the constitution or was not in best interest of the state
Hayne-Webster Debate Famous senatorial debate in 1830 Robert Hayne (SC) v. Daniel Webster (MA) Hayne: gov’t was a compact between the states Webster: U.S. was one nation, not just an agreement between states -”Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseperable!”
Nullification Crisis 1832- Congress passed yet another tariff SC declared law null & void, and threatened to secede from the Union if US gov’t enforced the tariff -This is called the “nullification crisis” Calhoun felt strong about the issue & resigned the vice presidency to become a SC Senator Jackson got Congress to create the Force Bill, allowing him to use military force to collect tariff in SC -But SC declared this law “null & void” also Henry Clay creates a compromise- tariffs would be gradually reduced over a period of 10 years.