3 Objectives Describe the tension between Adams and Jackson Describe the expansion of suffrageExplain Jackson’s Spoil’s System and his appeal to the common citizenSummarize the Effects of the Indian Removal Act of 1830Explain how the protective tariff laws raised the issue of states’ rightsSummarize how Jackson destroyed the Bank of the USIdentify some of Jackson’s economic policies and their impact on his successor
4 7.3 The Age of JacksonMain Idea – Andrew Jackson’s policies reflected an interest in the welfare of the common man, but also violated Native American rights.Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States
5 Expanding Democracy Changes Politics Election of 1824Voting Requirements ChangedElection of 1828Spoils System
6 Election of 1824 “The Corrupt Bargain” Andrew Jackson won more popular votes and more electoral votes than any other candidate, but failed to win a majority of electoral college votesThe House of Representatives (under the leadership of Henry Clay) picked John Quincy Adams as president over JacksonPresident Adams then selected Henry Clay as his Secretary of StateSIG – Jackson and his followers claimed a “corrupt bargain” had been made
7 Election of 1828During Adam’s presidency, voting requirements changed and white men no longer needed to own land as a requirement to vote1824 350,00 male voters1828 over 1 million male votersUniversal white male suffrage expanded participation in politics“Age of Jackson” became known as the “Age of Common Man”
8 Election of 1828Democratic-Republican Party had split = Two- Party SystemJohn Quincy Adams (National Republican) vs. Andrew Jackson (Democrat)Andrew Jackson =WINNERwon easily by appealing to the “common man”
9 Spoils SystemSpoils System- Jackson rewarded his friends and political allies with federal jobs“Kitchen Cabinet” – group of close friends who served as informal advisers
10 Removal of Native Americans BackgroundIndian Removal Act of 1830Trail of Tears
11 Background: Removal of Native Americans “five civilized tribes” = Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, SeminoleAll had adopted white culture of their neighbors in the SouthWhite planters and miners wanted Native American lands
12 Trail of Tears Reading Activity: On the back of your reading sheet, write your name and make a “KWL” Chart. You will turn this in!
13 Indian Removal Act of 1830The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was signed by Jackson.It gave the federal government power to force the Native Americans to move West of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma
14 Indian Removal Act of 1830Cherokee resisted forced move to the West in the Supreme CourtWorchester v. Georgia – Cherokee Nation won their case against GeorgiaSIG – ruling by John Marshall was ignored by Andrew Jackson
15 Trail of Tears, 1838-1839 The Trail of Tears All Cherokee were forcibly removed by the U.S. army to reservation lands West of the Mississippi River called “Indian Territory” or Oklahoma25% of all Cherokee died along the Trail of TearsLand in Oklahoma was inferior, suffering of Cherokee people continued
16 7.3 The Age of Jackson: Timeline 1824182818301832Jackson loses presidential election to John Quincy Adams.Jackson pushes Congress to pass Indian Removal Act.Jackson wins presidential election.Jackson refuses to enforce Supreme Court ruling on Worcester v. Georgia.
17 7.4 States’ Rights & the National Bank Main IdeaAndrew Jackson confronted two important issues during his presidency – states’ rights concerning the tariff issue and the existence of the national bank.
18 A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue Background: first protective tariff (tax on imported goods) passed in 1816 Designed to protect American industries from foreign competition Disliked by Southern states = agricultural economy, not industrial
19 Tariff of 1828Tariff of 1828 (aka “Tariff of Abominations”) – raised tariff to a new high John C. Calhoun (Vice-President) opposed to the tariffthought the tariff only benefitted the North, while the South suffered due to higher price of goodsdeveloped the “nullification theory” – def. = a state had the right to reject a federal law if that state believed it was unconstitutionalAndrew Jackson (President) – argued that the Union must be preserved, meaning the law had to be enforcedCalhoun and Jackson never worked together again
20 Nullification CrisisNullification Crisis (1832) – conflict between South Carolina and Andrew JacksonSouth Carolina nullified Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 South Carolina threatened to secede, or withdraw, from the UnionJackson signed the Force Bill– def. – allowed the federal government to use the military to enforce federal law and collect tariff revenuesResolved by Henry Clay (“The Great Compromiser) – new rates would lower the tariff over timeSouth Carolina nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and threatenedto secede (officially withdraw) from the Union if challenged.Congress quickly passed the Force Bill, authorizing military action toenforce the tariff. Jackson threatened to lead the army against SouthCarolina and hang John C. Calhoun.South Carolina avoided civil war by accepting the 1833 CompromiseTariff but turned right around and nullified the Force Bill.
21 Jackson Attacks the National Bank Jackson hated the national bank - argued that the bank helped only the wealthy Jackson vetoed the new bank charter in 1832Jackson deposited all national bank money into “Pet Banks” – def. state banks run by loyal DemocratsA satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy the Bank of the United States and its support among state banks. Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states.
22 The Whig Party SIG – led to the formation of the Whig Party hated Andrew JacksonLeaders= Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Daniel WebsterWhigs devoted to Henry Clay’s American System
23 Panic of 1837SIG – led to the Panic of 1837 = severe economic depressionPet Banks issued worthless currencyJackson passed the Specie Circular – def. – federal lands could only be bought or sold using gold and silverbanks failed and closed, people lost savings, unemployment reached 33%
24 Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy Martin Van Buren = Jackson’s successor as president, won Election of 1836His administration was hurt by the Panic of 1837Martin Van Buren
25 Election of 1840 Election of 1840 – Martin Van Buren (Democrat) vs. William Henry Harrison (Whig)William Henry Harrison = military general and war hero – won electionElection of 1840WinnerVan Buren vs. Harrison
26 Election of 1840 Used a new style of campaigning Slogan – “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!”Appealed to common men - Log Cabin and Hard Cider CampaignWilliam Henry Harrison died in office after 1 monthJohn Tyler = new president, called “His Accidency”John Tyler