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JUST DO IT: Take out your sol wrap up packet!

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Presentation on theme: "JUST DO IT: Take out your sol wrap up packet!"— Presentation transcript:

1 JUST DO IT: Take out your sol wrap up packet!

2 Session 4: The Age of Jackson

3 Objectives Describe the tension between Adams and Jackson
Describe the expansion of suffrage Explain Jackson’s Spoil’s System and his appeal to the common citizen Summarize the Effects of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 Explain how the protective tariff laws raised the issue of states’ rights Summarize how Jackson destroyed the Bank of the US Identify some of Jackson’s economic policies and their impact on his successor

4 7.3 The Age of Jackson Main Idea – Andrew Jackson’s policies reflected an interest in the welfare of the common man, but also violated Native American rights. Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States

5 Expanding Democracy Changes Politics
Election of 1824 Voting Requirements Changed Election of 1828 Spoils System

6 Election of 1824 “The Corrupt Bargain”
Andrew Jackson won more popular votes and more electoral votes than any other candidate, but failed to win a majority of electoral college votes The House of Representatives (under the leadership of Henry Clay) picked John Quincy Adams as president over Jackson President Adams then selected Henry Clay as his Secretary of State SIG – Jackson and his followers claimed a “corrupt bargain” had been made

7 Election of 1828 During Adam’s presidency, voting requirements changed and white men no longer needed to own land as a requirement to vote 1824  350,00 male voters 1828  over 1 million male voters Universal white male suffrage expanded participation in politics “Age of Jackson” became known as the “Age of Common Man”

8 Election of 1828 Democratic-Republican Party had split = Two- Party System John Quincy Adams (National Republican) vs. Andrew Jackson (Democrat) Andrew Jackson =WINNER won easily by appealing to the “common man”

9 Spoils System Spoils System- Jackson rewarded his friends and political allies with federal jobs “Kitchen Cabinet” – group of close friends who served as informal advisers

10 Removal of Native Americans
Background Indian Removal Act of 1830 Trail of Tears

11 Background: Removal of Native Americans
“five civilized tribes” = Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole All had adopted white culture of their neighbors in the South White planters and miners wanted Native American lands

12 Trail of Tears Reading Activity:
On the back of your reading sheet, write your name and make a “KWL” Chart. You will turn this in!

13 Indian Removal Act of 1830 The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was signed by Jackson. It gave the federal government power to force the Native Americans to move West of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma

14 Indian Removal Act of 1830 Cherokee resisted forced move to the West in the Supreme Court Worchester v. Georgia – Cherokee Nation won their case against Georgia SIG – ruling by John Marshall was ignored by Andrew Jackson

15 Trail of Tears, 1838-1839 The Trail of Tears
All Cherokee were forcibly removed by the U.S. army to reservation lands West of the Mississippi River called “Indian Territory” or Oklahoma 25% of all Cherokee died along the Trail of Tears Land in Oklahoma was inferior, suffering of Cherokee people continued

16 7.3 The Age of Jackson: Timeline
1824 1828 1830 1832 Jackson loses presidential election to John Quincy Adams. Jackson pushes Congress to pass Indian Removal Act. Jackson wins presidential election. Jackson refuses to enforce Supreme Court ruling on Worcester v. Georgia.

17 7.4 States’ Rights & the National Bank
Main Idea Andrew Jackson confronted two important issues during his presidency – states’ rights concerning the tariff issue and the existence of the national bank.

18 A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue
Background: first protective tariff (tax on imported goods) passed in 1816  Designed to protect American industries from foreign competition  Disliked by Southern states = agricultural economy, not industrial

19 Tariff of 1828 Tariff of 1828 (aka “Tariff of Abominations”) – raised tariff to a new high  John C. Calhoun (Vice-President) opposed to the tariff thought the tariff only benefitted the North, while the South suffered due to higher price of goods developed the “nullification theory” – def. = a state had the right to reject a federal law if that state believed it was unconstitutional Andrew Jackson (President) – argued that the Union must be preserved, meaning the law had to be enforced Calhoun and Jackson never worked together again

20 Nullification Crisis Nullification Crisis (1832) – conflict between South Carolina and Andrew Jackson South Carolina nullified Tariffs of 1828 and 1832  South Carolina threatened to secede, or withdraw, from the Union Jackson signed the Force Bill– def. – allowed the federal government to use the military to enforce federal law and collect tariff revenues Resolved by Henry Clay (“The Great Compromiser) – new rates would lower the tariff over time South Carolina nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and threatened to secede (officially withdraw) from the Union if challenged. Congress quickly passed the Force Bill, authorizing military action to enforce the tariff. Jackson threatened to lead the army against South Carolina and hang John C. Calhoun. South Carolina avoided civil war by accepting the 1833 Compromise Tariff but turned right around and nullified the Force Bill.

21 Jackson Attacks the National Bank
Jackson hated the national bank - argued that the bank helped only the wealthy  Jackson vetoed the new bank charter in 1832 Jackson deposited all national bank money into “Pet Banks” – def. state banks run by loyal Democrats A satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy the Bank of the United States and its support among state banks. Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states.

22 The Whig Party SIG – led to the formation of the Whig Party
hated Andrew Jackson Leaders= Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster Whigs devoted to Henry Clay’s American System

23 Panic of 1837 SIG – led to the Panic of 1837 = severe economic depression Pet Banks issued worthless currency Jackson passed the Specie Circular – def. – federal lands could only be bought or sold using gold and silver banks failed and closed, people lost savings, unemployment reached 33%

24 Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy
Martin Van Buren = Jackson’s successor as president, won Election of 1836 His administration was hurt by the Panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren

25 Election of 1840 Election of 1840 – Martin Van Buren (Democrat) vs.
William Henry Harrison (Whig) William Henry Harrison = military general and war hero – won election Election of 1840 Winner Van Buren vs. Harrison

26 Election of 1840 Used a new style of campaigning
Slogan – “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” Appealed to common men - Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign William Henry Harrison died in office after 1 month John Tyler = new president, called “His Accidency” John Tyler

27 Next Class

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