2 ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF CELLS Write the three parts of the cell theory:1. The cell is the basic unit of life2. All organisms are made of 1 or more cells3. All cells come from existing cells
3 CellsA living organism is like a factory. The organism must be able to obtain….ENERGYAnd…RAW MATERIALSAnd get rid of…WASTEThe CELL performs these functionsThe exchange of materials between a cell and its environment takes place at the…CELL MEMBRANE
4 ALL LIVING THINGS MAKE ENERGY. CHEMICALS ARE MOVED INTO THE CELL AND WASTES OUT OF THE CELL THROUGH THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES:Diffusion/osmosisPassive transport/active transportEndocytosis /exocytosis
5 Diffusion definition of diffusion (p 88). The movement of particles from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentrationdefinition of osmosis (p 88).The diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membraneWhat does the word concentration have to do with diffusion?Particles move from crowded areas (highly concentrated) to less crowded areas (low concentration)
6 Illustration of Diffusion & Osmosis Notebook page 88 See example in your book – pg.90OrThink of the food coloring DEMO
7 Osmosis Notebook page 88 Review: What is a molecule? A substance made when 2 or more atoms combineWhat is a semi-permeable membrane? (p. 91)A membrane where only certain substances can pass throughWhat does equilibrium mean?In balanceCells must keep water and concentration of particles in balance (equilibrium) to remain healthy
8 Passive Transport definition of passive transport. Movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cellParticles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentrationExamples:Diffusion and Osmosis
9 Illustration of Passive Transport across a cell membrane Picture Notebook on p 88NO ENERGY IS USED
10 Active Transport definition of active transport The movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energyUsually this process involves the movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
11 10. Illustration of Active Transport Notebook page 92ENERGY IS NEEDED.
12 EndocytosisDefinition of endocytosisThe process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cellThink “enter”
13 ExocytosisDefinitionThe process by which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane.Think “exit”
14 Illustration of the three steps of EXOCYTOSIS Notebook page 92 Note: The 4th picture is a real image of exocytosis under a microscope
15 Illustration of the three steps of ENDOCYTOSIS Notebook page 92 Note: The 4th picture is a real image of exocytosis under a microscope
16 PhotosynthesisPLANTS__________capture energy from the sun and change it into food.The food that plants make supplies them with…ENERGYChlorophyll.The main pigment found in chloroplasts that is used in photosynthesisChlorophyll gives plants their green color.Chlorophyll is found in the…CHLOROPLASTS (hint: both start with “chloro”)
17 Photosynthesis Notebook page 94 Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. Under each component draw an illustration to help you remember this equation.6CO2 + 6H20 + Light Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2Carbon DioxideWaterGlucoseOxygen+++
18 MITOCHONDRIA CHLOROPLAST Illustration of a PLANT obtaining energy from the sun and an ANIMAL obtaining energy from the plant (food)MITOCHONDRIACHLOROPLAST
19 Illustration of a PLANT CELL obtaining energy from the sun and an ANIMAL CELL obtaining energy from the plant (food).
20 Cellular Respiration Notebook page 96 Cellular respiration occurs most in complex organisms.During cellular respiration food (such as glucose) is broken down into CO2 and H2O and energy is released.In animals, most of the energy released helps maintain body temperature.Some of the energy is used to form ATP (energy that fuels cell activities).
21 Cellular Respiration Notebook page 96 Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. Under each component draw an illustration to help you remember the equation.C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy (ATP)GlucoseOxygenCarbon DioxideWaterATP+++
22 Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Draw Picture from textbook page 96 onto Notebook Page 98 Photosynthesis transforms energy from the sun into glucose. During photosynthesis, cells use CO2 to make glucose, and the cells release O2.During cellular respiration, cells use O2 to break down glucose and release energy and CO2.Each process makes the materials that are needed for the other process to occur elsewhere.
23 Fermentation Notebook page 102 Write the definition of fermentation.The breakdown of food without the use of oxygenOne kind of fermentation happens in your muscles and produces lactic acid.The buildup of lactic acid contributes to muscle fatigue and causes a burning sensation.This kind of fermentation also happens in the muscle cells of other animals and in some fungi and bacteria.Another type of fermentation occurs in some types of bacteria and in yeast.
24 ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGY All cells need energy to live, grow and develop, respond to changes, and reproduce.Plant cells get energy from the…SUNAnimal cells get energy fromFOODAnimal Cells get this energy in 2 waysCELLULAR RESPIRATION and FERMENTATIONPhotosynthesisthe process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, CO2 ,and H2O to make foodCellular respirationthe process by which cells use oxygen (O2)to produce energy from foodFermentationTHE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD WITHOUT THE USE OF OXYGEN (O2)
25 If all the plants in the world were destroyed, what would happen to the rest of the living things and why?Everything would die because plants capture energy from the sun to make food. This food also becomes the source of energy for the organisms that eat plants. The meat of those organisms becomes the source of food for meat-eaters. Without plants which are the only organisms that can capture the sun’s energy and convert it into food, everything else would die.
26 ALL LIVING THINGS GROW AND DEVELOP,REPRODUCE, AND HAVE DNA Cell Cycle and Cell DivisionWrite a definition of the cell cycle.The life cycle of a cellThe cell cycle begins when the cell is formed.The cell cycle ends when the cell divides.Before a cell divides, it must make a copy of its DNA (hereditary material that controls all cell activities, including the making of new cells).Copying chromosomes ensures that each new cell will be an exact copy of its parent cell.
27 Cell Division in Prokaryotes Write a definition of prokaryotic cell.A cell that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organellesDraw an illustration of a typical prokaryotic cell.What organisms contain prokaryotic cells?Bacteria and ArchaeaDefine binary fission.SPLITTING INTO 2 PARTSBinary fission results in two cells that each contain one copy of the circle of DNA.
29 ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE DNA Eukaryotic cells and DNA Eukaryotic cells contain more DNA than prokaryotic cells do.The number of chromosomes depends on the organismExample: fruit flies have 8 chromosomes, potatoes have 48, and humans have 46.
31 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle There are three stages: -Interphase- the cell grows and copies its organelles and chromosomes.Mitosis- a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomesCytokinesis- the cytoplasm begins to divide and two identical cells are formed.
32 The cell cycleDraw, label, and write a caption for the three stages of a cell’s cycle including the four phases of mitosis. There are six total.
33 List the six characteristics of life and at least one cell process the cell does to achieve this. Living things have one or more cellsEx: Cell TheoryLiving things sense and respond to changeEx: The cell allows materials to move in and outLiving things reproduceEx: Mitosis or MeiosisLiving things have DNAEx: All cells have chromosomes made of DNALiving things use energyEx: Active transport, Endocytosis and ExocytosisLiving things grow and developEx: The cell cycle (the cell is formed, grows, and divides)
34 32. REVIEWName the five building blocks of the cell. Beside the building blocks list any cell part or cell process that depends on this chemical.Proteins – cell membrane for passive and active transportLipids – cell membrane is made of phospholipidsATP – produced by cellular respiration in the mitochondriaNucleic Acid – Nucleus (DNA) – carries genetic information during reproductionCarbohydrate – cellular respiration makes glucose which is a carbohydrate