Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "THE CELL IN ACTION."— Presentation transcript:


Write the three parts of the cell theory: 1. The cell is the basic unit of life 2. All organisms are made of 1 or more cells 3. All cells come from existing cells

3 Cells A living organism is like a factory. The organism must be able to obtain…. ENERGY And… RAW MATERIALS And get rid of… WASTE The CELL performs these functions The exchange of materials between a cell and its environment takes place at the… CELL MEMBRANE

CHEMICALS ARE MOVED INTO THE CELL AND WASTES OUT OF THE CELL THROUGH THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES: Diffusion/osmosis Passive transport/active transport Endocytosis /exocytosis

5 Diffusion definition of diffusion (p 88).
The movement of particles from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration definition of osmosis (p 88). The diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane What does the word concentration have to do with diffusion? Particles move from crowded areas (highly concentrated) to less crowded areas (low concentration)

6 Illustration of Diffusion & Osmosis Notebook page 88
See example in your book – pg.90 Or Think of the food coloring DEMO

7 Osmosis Notebook page 88 Review: What is a molecule?
A substance made when 2 or more atoms combine What is a semi-permeable membrane? (p. 91) A membrane where only certain substances can pass through What does equilibrium mean? In balance Cells must keep water and concentration of particles in balance (equilibrium) to remain healthy

8 Passive Transport definition of passive transport.
Movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell Particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Examples: Diffusion and Osmosis

9 Illustration of Passive Transport across a cell membrane
Picture Notebook on p 88 NO ENERGY IS USED

10 Active Transport definition of active transport
The movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy Usually this process involves the movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration

11 10. Illustration of Active Transport
Notebook page 92 ENERGY IS NEEDED.

12 Endocytosis Definition of endocytosis The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell Think “enter”

13 Exocytosis Definition The process by which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane. Think “exit”

14 Illustration of the three steps of EXOCYTOSIS Notebook page 92
Note: The 4th picture is a real image of exocytosis under a microscope

15 Illustration of the three steps of ENDOCYTOSIS Notebook page 92
Note: The 4th picture is a real image of exocytosis under a microscope

16 Photosynthesis PLANTS __________capture energy from the sun and change it into food. The food that plants make supplies them with… ENERGY Chlorophyll. The main pigment found in chloroplasts that is used in photosynthesis Chlorophyll gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is found in the… CHLOROPLASTS (hint: both start with “chloro”)

17 Photosynthesis Notebook page 94
Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. Under each component draw an illustration to help you remember this equation. 6CO2 + 6H20 + Light Energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon Dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen + + +

Illustration of a PLANT obtaining energy from the sun and an ANIMAL obtaining energy from the plant (food) MITOCHONDRIA CHLOROPLAST

19 Illustration of a PLANT CELL obtaining energy from the sun and an ANIMAL CELL obtaining energy from the plant (food).

20 Cellular Respiration Notebook page 96
Cellular respiration occurs most in complex organisms. During cellular respiration food (such as glucose) is broken down into CO2 and H2O and energy is released. In animals, most of the energy released helps maintain body temperature. Some of the energy is used to form ATP (energy that fuels cell activities).

21 Cellular Respiration Notebook page 96
Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. Under each component draw an illustration to help you remember the equation. C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy (ATP) Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water ATP + + +

22 Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Draw Picture from textbook page 96 onto Notebook Page 98
Photosynthesis transforms energy from the sun into glucose. During photosynthesis, cells use CO2 to make glucose, and the cells release O2. During cellular respiration, cells use O2 to break down glucose and release energy and CO2. Each process makes the materials that are needed for the other process to occur elsewhere.

23 Fermentation Notebook page 102
Write the definition of fermentation. The breakdown of food without the use of oxygen One kind of fermentation happens in your muscles and produces lactic acid. The buildup of lactic acid contributes to muscle fatigue and causes a burning sensation. This kind of fermentation also happens in the muscle cells of other animals and in some fungi and bacteria. Another type of fermentation occurs in some types of bacteria and in yeast.

All cells need energy to live, grow and develop, respond to changes, and reproduce. Plant cells get energy from the… SUN Animal cells get energy from FOOD Animal Cells get this energy in 2 ways CELLULAR RESPIRATION and FERMENTATION Photosynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, CO2 ,and H2O to make food Cellular respiration the process by which cells use oxygen (O2)to produce energy from food Fermentation THE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD WITHOUT THE USE OF OXYGEN (O2)

25 If all the plants in the world were destroyed, what would happen to the rest of the living things and why? Everything would die because plants capture energy from the sun to make food. This food also becomes the source of energy for the organisms that eat plants. The meat of those organisms becomes the source of food for meat-eaters. Without plants which are the only organisms that can capture the sun’s energy and convert it into food, everything else would die.

Cell Cycle and Cell Division Write a definition of the cell cycle. The life cycle of a cell The cell cycle begins when the cell is formed. The cell cycle ends when the cell divides. Before a cell divides, it must make a copy of its DNA (hereditary material that controls all cell activities, including the making of new cells). Copying chromosomes ensures that each new cell will be an exact copy of its parent cell.

27 Cell Division in Prokaryotes
Write a definition of prokaryotic cell. A cell that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Draw an illustration of a typical prokaryotic cell. What organisms contain prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and Archaea Define binary fission. SPLITTING INTO 2 PARTS Binary fission results in two cells that each contain one copy of the circle of DNA.

28 Illustration of Binary fission

29 ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE DNA Eukaryotic cells and DNA
Eukaryotic cells contain more DNA than prokaryotic cells do. The number of chromosomes depends on the organism Example: fruit flies have 8 chromosomes, potatoes have 48, and humans have 46.

30 Illustration of the human chromosome

31 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle There are three stages:
-Interphase- the cell grows and copies its organelles and chromosomes. Mitosis- a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes Cytokinesis- the cytoplasm begins to divide and two identical cells are formed.

32 The cell cycle Draw, label, and write a caption for the three stages of a cell’s cycle including the four phases of mitosis. There are six total.

33 List the six characteristics of life and at least one cell process the cell does to achieve this.
Living things have one or more cells Ex: Cell Theory Living things sense and respond to change Ex: The cell allows materials to move in and out Living things reproduce Ex: Mitosis or Meiosis Living things have DNA Ex: All cells have chromosomes made of DNA Living things use energy Ex: Active transport, Endocytosis and Exocytosis Living things grow and develop Ex: The cell cycle (the cell is formed, grows, and divides)

34 32. REVIEW Name the five building blocks of the cell. Beside the building blocks list any cell part or cell process that depends on this chemical. Proteins – cell membrane for passive and active transport Lipids – cell membrane is made of phospholipids ATP – produced by cellular respiration in the mitochondria Nucleic Acid – Nucleus (DNA) – carries genetic information during reproduction Carbohydrate – cellular respiration makes glucose which is a carbohydrate

Download ppt "THE CELL IN ACTION."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google