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Cell Processes Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Processes Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Processes Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle

2 Exchange with the Environment Diffusion- the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Osmosis- the diffusion of water across a cell membrane

3 No energy required

4 Cell in Action Passive transport- the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration- no energy Active transport- the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion ---requires cells to use energy( active transport)


6 Cell in Action Endocytosis -the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell Exocytosis- the process used to remove large particles from a cell; a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell


8 Cell Energy Photosynthesis- the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar Cellular respiration- the process of producing ATP from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide as a waste product

9 Photosynthesis

10 ms/photosynthesis/photosynthesis.html ms/photosynthesis/photosynthesis.html /photosynthesis/photosynthesis_game.html /photosynthesis/photosynthesis_game.html

11 Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation. The overall balanced equation is... 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O ---------> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Sunlight energy Where: CO 2 = carbon dioxide H 2 O = water Light energy is required C 6 H 12 O 6 = glucose O 2 = oxygen Learn these formulas

12 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis : transforms light energy to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar-occurs in chloroplast o Uses carbon dioxide and water o Produces oxygen and glucose o Opposite of cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria

13 Cellular Respiration

14 Cellular Respiration Equation ATP heat



17 ATP ATP ATP The molecule that supplies energy to fuel the activities of the cell Formed during cellular respiration in the mitochondria Adenosine triphosphate

18 Glucose Is a carbohydrate-a form of sugar Product of photosynthesis C 6 H 12 O 6 The energy in glucose is- used by plant’s cells Some glucose may be stored in the form of other carbohydrates or lipids Used as raw material(reactant ) in cellular respiration

19 Cellular ATP Heat Light Energy


21 Fermentation Fermentation is the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen All organisms must break down food molecules in order to release the stored energy. When this is done without oxygen – it is called FERMENTATION Anerobic= without oxygen

22 2 types of fermentation 1- Your muscles need energy faster than your body can provide oxygen to your cells to produce ATP by cellular respiration--- Fermentation produces lactic acid---and muscle fatigue Result: small amount of ATP because glucose is only partially broken down 2- fermentation that occurs in some bacteria and fungi Ex. Yeast can make carbon dioxide and alcohol during fermentation of sugar.

23 Cell Cycle The life cycle of the cell In eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) it consists of 3 parts 1-Interphase: cell growth and chromosome duplication 2- Mitosis (PMAT) 3- Cytokinesis



26 Chromosome Coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division Humans have 46 chromosomes

27 Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes with matching or similar information Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Potatoes have 24 pairs of homologous chromosomes An organism’s number of chromosomes has nothing to do with its complexity

28 Binary Fission The simple cell division in which one cell splits into two Used by bacteria

29 Chromatids Identical copies of a chromosome After each chromosome is duplicated(copied) - the 2 copies are called CHROMATIDS

30 Centromere The region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated(copied )

31 Mitosis Nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes Mitosis makes sure each new cell receives a copy of each chromosome Consists of 4 phases- PMAT Prophase, Metaphase,Anaphase and Telophase Second stage of cell cycle

32 Cytokinesis The process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis Animal cells-The cell membrane pinches in to form a groove—eventually pinching ALL the way through the cell 2 daughter cells formed ***Plant cells: Have a cell wall- these cells must first form a cell plate –in the middle of the cell-this becomes the cell membrane- then new cell wall formed

33 Cytokinesis

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