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Chapter 2: The Cell in Action

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1 Chapter 2: The Cell in Action
Sections 1-3 Pages 32-49

2 Diffusion The movement from areas of high concentration (crowded) to lower concentration (not crowded) Diffusion happens within and between living cells, requires no energy

3 Diffusion Animation

4 Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through cell membranes
Semi permeable- only some substances can pass through

5 Osmosis and the Animal Cell

6 Osmosis and the Plant Cell

7 Osmosis Animation

8 Moving Small Particles
Passive Transport The movement of particles across the cell membrane without the use of energy Diffusion and Osmosis are examples

9 Moving Small Particles
Active Transport Low to high concentration, requires energy because it works against the flow of particles (example-gravity, going up hill)

10 Moving Large Particles
The active-transport process by which a cell surrounds a large particle, such as a large protein, and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell is called endocytosis Vesicles are sacs formed from pieces of cell membrane.

11 Moving Large Particles
When large particles, such as wastes, leave the cell, the cell uses an active-transport process called exocytosis. During exocytosis, a vesicle forms around a large particle within the cell. The vesicle carries the particle to the cell membrane. The vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases the particle to the outside of the cell.

12 Endo and Exocytosis

13 Cell Energy Autotrophs Heterotrophs
An organism that makes its food through the process of photosynthesis. Also known as “producers” An organism that can not make its own food, so it eats other organisms or plants. Also known as “consumers”

14 Energy Roles Each organism in an ecosystem fills the energy role of either producer, consumer or decomposer.

15 Energy Roles http://www. glencoe
Producer An organism that can make its own food. Producers are the source of all food in an ecosystem. Plants, algae and some bacteria. Consumer An organism that feeds on other organisms. Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore-human Scavenger Decomposer An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms. Nature’s recyclers Mushrooms and bacteria

16 Photosynthesis During photosynthesis, plants and some organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars. Plants use the pigments called chlorophyll (which makes plants green) located in the chloroplasts to change the carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to oxygen and sugar

17 Photosynthesis Stage 1: Capturing the sun’s energy, Chloroplasts in plant cells capture energy from the sunlight Stage 2: The captured light energy is used to produce sugars and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.

18 Photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = sugar + oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight = C6 H12 O6 + 6O2

19 Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain Many cells use oxygen to break down these food molecules Most of the energy released maintains body temp, some is used to form ATP.

20 Cellular Respiration Stage 1: In the cytoplasm, molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules. Oxygen isn't involved and only a small amount of energy is released. Stage 2: Takes place in the mitochondria, the small molecules are broken down even smaller. These chemical reactions require oxygen and release a lot of energy. This is why the mitochondria are called the “powerhouse” of the cell.

21 Cellular Respiration What is the difference between cellular respiration and respiration (breathing)? Cellular respiration is a chemical process by which cells produce energy from food. Respiration or breathing supplies the body with raw materials needed for cellular respiration.

22 Cellular Respiration

23 Does this look like the Carbon Cycle?

24 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

25 Fermentation Provides energy for cells without using oxygen.
Alcoholic fermentation: when yeast and some other single celled organisms break down sugar Lactic acid fermentation: takes place in our bodies when you exercise and feel that painful sensation in your muscles because you were using up oxygen faster than it can be replaced

26 Life of a Cell- the Cell Cycle
The cell cycle begins when the cell is formed and ends when the cell divides and forms new cells. Before it can divide, it must make a copy of its DNA. DNA is organized into chromosomes. This ensures that each new cell made will be an exact copy of its parent cell.

27 Making more Prokaryotic Cells
Less complicated than Eukaryotic cells. These Prokaryotic cells (like bacteria) go through binary fission. Binary fission is when the cell splits into two, resulting in two cells.

28 Eukaryotic cells and their DNA
More complex Contain more DNA Humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, homologous chromosomes The number of chromosomes is not always related to the complexity of organisms.

29 Making more Eukaryotic Cells- 3 stages
Stage 1: Interphase- The cell grows and copies its organelles. After each chromosome is duplicated, the copies are called chromatids. Chromatids are held together at the centromere. The chromatids join and twist, condensing into a X shape.

30 Cell Cycle

31 Making more Eukaryotic Cells
Stage 2: Mitosis- Chromatids separate. This ensures that each new cell receives a copy of each chromosome. During mitosis, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells. There are four phases of mitosis- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase

32 Phases of Mitosis Phase 1. Prophase: Nuclear membrane dissolves. Chromosomes condense into rod like structures.

33 Phases of Mitosis Phase 2. Metaphase: The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. Homologous chromosomes pair up.

34 Phases of Mitosis Phase 3. Anaphase: The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.

35 Phases of Mitosis Phase 4. Telophase: A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind. Mitosis is complete.

36 Making more Eukaryotic Cells
Stage 3: Cytokinesis During this stage the cytoplasm divides. The organelles are distributed into each of the two new cells. Cytokinesis is different in animal cells than plant cells because plant cells have cell walls. Plant cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis.

37 Mitosis and Cytokinesis

38 Time a Cell Spends in Phases of Mitosis

39 Cell Cycle Time Chart

40 Interphase and Mitosis
Interphase in the cell cycle is like childhood and adolescence in the human cycle, because this is the time of growth and maturity. During interphase, a cell grows to its full size. NO cell division occurs. Mitosis is like adulthood because humans reproduce in this stage. During mitosis, the nucleus divides to form new cells.

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