8 Moving Small Particles Passive TransportThe movement of particles across the cell membrane without the use of energyDiffusion and Osmosis are examples
9 Moving Small Particles Active TransportLow to high concentration, requires energy because it works against the flow of particles (example-gravity, going up hill)
10 Moving Large Particles The active-transport process by which a cell surrounds a large particle, such as a large protein, and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell is called endocytosisVesicles are sacs formed from pieces of cell membrane.
11 Moving Large Particles When large particles, such as wastes, leave the cell, the cell uses an active-transport process called exocytosis.During exocytosis, a vesicle forms around a large particle within the cell. The vesicle carries the particle to the cell membrane.The vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases the particle to the outside of the cell.
13 Cell Energy Autotrophs Heterotrophs An organism that makes its food through the process of photosynthesis.Also known as “producers”An organism that can not make its own food, so it eats other organisms or plants.Also known as “consumers”
14 Energy RolesEach organism in an ecosystem fills the energy role of either producer, consumer or decomposer.
15 Energy Roles http://www. glencoe ProducerAn organism that can make its own food.Producers are the source of all food in an ecosystem.Plants, algae and some bacteria.ConsumerAn organism that feeds on other organisms.HerbivoreCarnivoreOmnivore-humanScavengerDecomposerAn organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms.Nature’s recyclersMushrooms and bacteria
16 PhotosynthesisDuring photosynthesis, plants and some organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars.Plants use the pigments called chlorophyll (which makes plants green) located in the chloroplasts to change the carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to oxygen and sugar
17 PhotosynthesisStage 1: Capturing the sun’s energy, Chloroplasts in plant cells capture energy from the sunlightStage 2: The captured light energy is used to produce sugars and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
19 Cellular RespirationDuring cellular respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they containMany cells use oxygen to break down these food moleculesMost of the energy released maintains body temp, some is used to form ATP.
20 Cellular RespirationStage 1: In the cytoplasm, molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules. Oxygen isn't involved and only a small amount of energy is released.Stage 2: Takes place in the mitochondria, the small molecules are broken down even smaller. These chemical reactions require oxygen and release a lot of energy. This is why the mitochondria are called the “powerhouse” of the cell.
21 Cellular RespirationWhat is the difference between cellular respiration and respiration (breathing)?Cellular respiration is a chemical process by which cells produce energy from food. Respiration or breathing supplies the body with raw materials needed for cellular respiration.
24 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
25 Fermentation Provides energy for cells without using oxygen. Alcoholic fermentation: when yeast and some other single celled organisms break down sugarLactic acid fermentation: takes place in our bodies when you exercise and feel that painful sensation in your muscles because you were using up oxygen faster than it can be replaced
26 Life of a Cell- the Cell Cycle The cell cycle begins when the cell is formed and ends when the cell divides and forms new cells.Before it can divide, it must make a copy of its DNA.DNA is organized into chromosomes. This ensures that each new cell made will be an exact copy of its parent cell.
27 Making more Prokaryotic Cells Less complicated than Eukaryotic cells.These Prokaryotic cells (like bacteria) go through binary fission.Binary fission is when the cell splits into two, resulting in two cells.
28 Eukaryotic cells and their DNA More complexContain more DNAHumans have 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, homologous chromosomesThe number of chromosomes is not always related to the complexity of organisms.
29 Making more Eukaryotic Cells- 3 stages Stage 1: Interphase-The cell grows and copies its organelles.After each chromosome is duplicated, the copies are called chromatids.Chromatids are held together at the centromere.The chromatids join and twist, condensing into a X shape.
31 Making more Eukaryotic Cells Stage 2: Mitosis-Chromatids separate.This ensures that each new cell receives a copy of each chromosome.During mitosis, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells.There are four phases of mitosis- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
32 Phases of MitosisPhase 1. Prophase: Nuclear membrane dissolves. Chromosomes condense into rod like structures.
33 Phases of MitosisPhase 2. Metaphase: The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. Homologous chromosomes pair up.
34 Phases of MitosisPhase 3. Anaphase: The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
35 Phases of MitosisPhase 4. Telophase: A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind. Mitosis is complete.
36 Making more Eukaryotic Cells Stage 3: CytokinesisDuring this stage the cytoplasm divides. The organelles are distributed into each of the two new cells.Cytokinesis is different in animal cells than plant cells because plant cells have cell walls.Plant cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis.
40 Interphase and Mitosis Interphase in the cell cycle is like childhood and adolescence in the human cycle, because this is the time of growth and maturity. During interphase, a cell grows to its full size. NO cell division occurs.Mitosis is like adulthood because humans reproduce in this stage. During mitosis, the nucleus divides to form new cells.