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Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle
Cell Processes Cell Transport Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Cycle

2 Exchange with the Environment
Diffusion- the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Osmosis- the diffusion of water across a cell membrane

3 No energy required

4 Cell in Action Passive transport- the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration- no energy Active transport- the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion ---requires cells to use energy(active transport)


6 Cell in Action Endocytosis -the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell Exocytosis- the process used to remove large particles from a cell a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell


8 Cell Energy Photosynthesis- the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar Cellular respiration- the process of producing ATP from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide as a waste product

9 Photosynthesis

10 Photosynthesis

11 6CO2 + 6H2O ---------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight energy
Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation. The overall balanced equation is... 6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight energy Where: CO2 = carbon dioxide  H2O = water Light energy is required C6H12O6 = glucose O2 = oxygen Learn these formulas

12 Photosynthesis: transforms light energy to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar-occurs in chloroplast o Uses carbon dioxide and water o Produces oxygen and glucose o Opposite of cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria

13 Cellular Respiration


15 Cellular Respiration Equation


17 ATP ATP ATP The molecule that supplies energy to fuel the activities of the cell Formed during cellular respiration in the mitochondria Adenosine triphosphate

18 Glucose a carbohydrate- form of sugar Product of photosynthesis
C6H12O6 The energy in glucose is- used by plant’s cells Some may be stored in the form of other carbohydrates or lipids

19 cellular

20 Fermentation  Fermentation is "the process of energy production in a cell under anaerobic conditions."   Anaerobic is when a biological reaction or process can take place with the absence of oxygen.                                           

21 2 types of fermentation 1- Your muscles need energy faster than your body can provide oxygen to your cells to produce ATP by cellular respiration--- Fermentation produces lactic acid--- muscle fatigue 2- fermentation that occurs in some bacteria and fungi Ex. Yeast can make carbon dioxide and alcohol during fermentation of sugar.

22 Cell Cycle The life cycle of the cell
In eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) it consists of 3 parts 1-Interphase: cell growth and chromosome duplication 2- Mitosis (PMAT) 3- Cytokinesis



25 Chromosome Coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division Humans have 46 chromosomes

26 Binary Fission The simple cell division in which one cell splits into two Used by bacteria

27 Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes with matching or similar information Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Potatoes have 24 pairs of homologous chromosomes An organism’s number of chromosomes has nothing to do with its complexity

28 Chromatids Identical copies of a chromosome
After each chromosome is duplicated(copied)- the 2 copies are called CHROMATIDS

29 Centromere The region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated(copied)

30 Mitosis Nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes Mitosis makes sure each new cell receives a copy of each chromosome Consists of 4 phases- PMAT Prophase, Metaphase,Anaphase and Telophase Second stage of cell cycle

31 Cytokinesis The process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis
Animal cells-The cell membrane pinches in to form a groove—eventually pinching ALL the way through the cell 2 daughter cells formed ***Plant cells: Have a cell wall- these cells must first form a cell plate –in the middle of the cell-this becomes the cell membrane- then new cell wall formed

32 Cytokinesis

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