Presentation on theme: "Zimbabwe, Botswana, Angola. Zimbabwe Almost all of Zimbabwe’s people are black Africans, and belong to the Shona people. Their political history has been."— Presentation transcript:
Zimbabwe Almost all of Zimbabwe’s people are black Africans, and belong to the Shona people. Their political history has been troubled and violent. By AD 1000, the Shona people had built Great Zimbabwe, which means “house of stone.” Smaller Shona trading empires succeeded Great Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe Cont… British Settlers named the area Rhodesia around 1890. Civil wars occurred through the 1970’s due to racial tension and colonization. A peace treaty in 1979 established Rhodesia’s independence. The country was renamed Zimbabwe the following year. Since independence, Robert Mugabe has ruled Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe Cont… English is the official language of Zimbabwe. Most people are subsistence farmers. Most people follow traditional African religions or combine them with Christianity.
Zimbabwe Cont… In Zimbabwe, the president is elected to a six year term. Robert Mugabe, the current president, has been accused of jailing opponents and rigging elections to keep power. Most of the country’s income comes from large farms, which export beef, cotton, sugar, and tobacco.
Botswana Botswana is a landlocked country. Much of the country is located in the Kalahari desert, and the surrounding regions are dry. Although the country is poor, it is a success! For the past 40 years, Botswana has maintained peace, economic growth, and a democratic government.
Botswana: History Botswana was first settled by the San. The Tswana people migrated to the area, and by the 1700’s, had developed stone- walled villages and towns. The British came to the aid of the Tswana people during the 1880’s, protecting the people from rival African tribes. Britain governed until the 1960’s, but did little to develop the country.
Botswana: History Botswana gained independence in 1966. Seretse Khama was elected the first president. Botswana relied on Britain for the first 5 years, then the discovery if diamonds gave them the funds to improve their infrastructure and build other industries.
Botswana: Life and Culture English is the official language of Botswana. More than half of the population lives in cities. People adopted Christianity and Western dress in the late 1800’s. Botswana shares a problem with other African countries: HIV/AIDS 2 out of 5 adults are affected, and has been a medical and social tragedy for the country.
Botswana: Government and Economics Khama held office until his death in 1980, and his vice-president replaced him. The country has a multiparty system, but Khama’s Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence. The National Assembly selects the president.
Botswana: Government and Economics Between the late 1960’s and the 1990’s, Botswana enjoyed rapid economic growth. The country’s main industries are mining and farming. Exports include: beef, diamomds, copper, nickel, skins, and textiles. It must import food.
Angola: History Portugal colonized Angola in the 1500’s, and sent African slaves to Brazil. Angolans demanded independence in the 1950’s. Three rebel groups won independence for Angola in 1975, but then a civil war erupted between them. The winning group formed a Marxist government. A Marxist government is one that supports the philosophy of communism. In 1992, the government finally rejected Marxist ties, and allowed multiparty elections.
Angola: History The other two rebel groups continued fighting until the death of one of the leaders in 2002. This ended 27 years of civil war!
Angola: Culture There are 40 native languages in Angola, but Portuguese is the official langauge. 9 out of 10 Angolans are Christians. Music and art are very important to the people.
Angola: Government and Economics The first elections since 1992 were held in 2008. The MPLA (The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) party won the election. A new constitution was adopted in 2010.
Angola: Government and Economics The lengthy war destroyed the economy of Angola. 50% of the population are subsistence farmers, and the country imports half it’s food. Oil accounts for 90% of Angola’s exports. The country is rich in natural resources such as gold, diamonds, forests, and fish, but profiting from these resources will require a long period of peace, and a strong government.