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New Nations in Africa by: California Christensen and Stef Persin.

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Presentation on theme: "New Nations in Africa by: California Christensen and Stef Persin."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Nations in Africa by: California Christensen and Stef Persin

2 Achieving Independence The African push for independence began in the decades before World War II French-speaking Africans and West Indians began to express their growing sense of black consciousness and pride in traditional Africa. They formed the Negritude movement – A movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values


4 Achieving Independence… continued African nations gained independence in different ways The direct rule of European Nations – Foreigners governed at all levels and no self rule existed – Getting independence was more difficult The indirect rule of European Nations – Local officials did much of the governing and colonists enjoyed limited self rule – Easier transition to independence

5 Achieving Independence… continued Although Africans gained independence it was still difficult Many new countries were also plagued by the great ethnic strife – For many African nations, all of this led to instability, violence, and an overall struggle to deal with their newly gained independence

6 Ghana Leads the Way The British colony of the Gold Coast became the first African colony south of the Sahara to achieve independence Africans wanted full freedom Kwame Nkrumah – Leader of their largely non-violent movement – Organized strikes and boycotts – Became 1 st prime minister and later president for life – Dreamed of a “United States of Africa” – Pushed through new roads, new schools, and opened new health facilities


8 Fighting for Freedom: Kenya Claims Independence British ruled Kenya and resisted Kenyan independence Jomo Kenyatta - Strong leadership of Kenya nationalist - Became president of the new nation - He worked hard to unite the country’s ethnic and language groups The British granted Kenya independence


10 Fighting for Freedom: Algeria Struggles with Independence French colonists refused to share political power with the Algerians As a result, the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) announced its intention to fight – French sent out troops to Algeria – Long story short, Algeria gains independence Leader of FNL, Ahmed Ben Bella, became 1 st president


12 Fighting for Freedom: Algeria Struggles with Independence cont.. Ahmed was eventually overthrown -Unemployment and dissatisfaction with the government = the rise of religious fundamentalists who wanted to make Algeria and Islamic states Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) won local and parliamentary elections -Ruling government and army refused to accept these elections -Civil War broke out -War continues on and off to this day

13 Civil War in Congo and Angola: Freedom and Turmoil for Congo Belgian Congo= rubber and copper Belgian officials ruled with harsh hands Belgium was granted for independence in 1960 – Resulted in the Civil War Mobutu Sese Seko Maintained control through a combination of force one party rule and gifts to supporters Was overthrown by Laurent Kabila after months of civil war Renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo


15 Civil War in Congo and Angola: Freedom and Turmoil for Congo cont.. Kabila became president – Promised transition to democracy and free elections (never came) – Civil war broke out – Rebel groups tried to overthrow Kabila’s autocratic rule (was assassinated) His son Joseph Kabila took power and began quest for peace – Was elected president under a new constitution

16 Civil War in Congo and Angola: War Tears at Angola Angola requested for independence Portuguese refused and sent in 50,000 troops to fight – This went into Portugal’s national budget= withdrawal Communists leading MPLA declared itself a new nations rightful government – Lead to prolong Civil War MPLA vs UNTA – Came to an agreement and the Civil War ended

17 Works Cited World History – Patterns of Interaction Textbook

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