Presentation on theme: " After independence, African governments were challenged with building national unity. Traditionally little loyalty to distant governments. Valued."— Presentation transcript:
After independence, African governments were challenged with building national unity. Traditionally little loyalty to distant governments. Valued ties to families, villages, and ethnic groups. Economic differences also other major difference. Many countries experienced civil wars after independence.
Congo 14 million people from 200 separate groups Mobutu Seko seized power in Zaire, province that broke away from Congo. Kabila overthrew government in 1997 and it's now Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia and Somalia had civil wars in late 1980s-1990s, contributed to famine. Rwanda had ethnic tensions leading to war and genocide in 1994. Liberia's economy destroyed by civil war in early 1990s.
One Party Rule Many African leaders set up one-party rule, felt that parties encouraged divisions. Tanzania set up one-party rule with a system of choice within a single party. Military Rule In many countries, military sets up to restore order and remove corrupt leaders. Usually use harsh measure to stay power. Many Africans support military rule, because a test of government's success to them is the government successful at developing the economy.
Stability & Progress Countries with stable governments made the most economic progress. Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Cameroon, and Kenya Economy grew under strong hand leaders. Many nations joined the trend toward democratization or multi-party systems.
KEY ISSUE: How much control should government have over economy? African Socialism - Government owns and operates major businesses and controls economy. Seen as a way to end special privileges, bring equality, and reject colonialism Few successes. Mixed Economies - Most nations have mixed economies Encourage private investment, but government does have control over many aspects of business. To build factories and produce goods to reduce dependence, turned to multinational corporations to get capital (money). Companies invested in mining and agriculture, make profits from exporting African crops and commodities.
Goals: Improve agriculture Build modern industrial economies Become economically self-sufficient
Most Africans subsistence farmers, but government programs neglect their needs. Most programs focus on cash crops, therefore farmers are planting cash crops instead of food crops Low food prices help poor city workers but farmers suffer. Rapid population growth and unpredictable rain cause problems Pressure on land constant, land exhausted and fewer places to plant.
Rely heavily on export of a single crop/commodity, so at mercy of world prices. Try to limit costly imports. Many nations must spend large amounts on imported oil With rising prices of oil and low prices for exports, African nations borrowed heavily.
Since independence, birth rate has risen and with better health care death rate fell. Result = soaring population. 1990's population was 680 million, today it is estimated at 1 billion. Traditions encourage large families, children seen as valuable resource Half the people are under 15 Governments need money for schools, housing, and jobs.
At independence, each African nation joined the UN. Actively working for policies that are viewed as favorable by the developed world Want international cooperation on issues such as education, environment, and agricultural development. CONCERN OVER DEBT
Early 1990s, worldwide economic slowdown hurt Africa as developed nations cut back on aid Nations forced into debt as oil price rose and prices for exports dropped Many found it hard to pay interest on their loans Turned to International Monetary Fund and World Bank for help Both demanded major economic changes such as increased raw materials exports and move toward free market economies. Many African nations saw this as interference in their internal affairs and decided against international help Debt problems still remain with heavy burden of repayment
Africa faces a variety of issues and searching for solutions to their problems. 1. Limiting Family Size Economy strained by population explosion UN and industrial nations working to set up family planning programs Working to change traditional view of large families. 2. Science & Food Production Find ways to increase food production, such as dry-season farming, developing new crops, and stop soil erosion. 3. Fighting Disease Since 1970s, AIDS swept across continent, infecting millions.