Presentation on theme: "Organic Compounds Must have carbon & usually bonded to other carbon atoms. May contain hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen & phosphorus. Four main classes."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Compounds Must have carbon & usually bonded to other carbon atoms. May contain hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen & phosphorus. Four main classes ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Lipids ◦ Proteins ◦ Nucleic Acids
Organic Compounds Subunits of organic compounds are monomers; while compounds of repeating monomers are polymers. Functional groups used to identify types ◦ Carboxyl or acid group (-COOH) ◦ Amine group (-NH 2 ) ◦ Phosphate group (-PO 3 ) ◦ Alcohol or aldehyde (-OH)
Carbohydrates Stores energy Support/structure Contains carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. H:O is 2:1
Simplest carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide or simple sugar ◦ Ex: glucose & fructose 2 monosaccarides are combined by removing a water molecule to form a disaccharide through a process called dehydration synthesis. ◦ Ex: Sucrose
Many saccharides are joined together form a polysaccharide. ◦ Ex: starch, cellulose, chitin & glycogen Polysaccharides (polymers) are broken down into monosaccharides (monomers) by water through a process called hydrolysis.
Lipids Contains carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. Less O found in lipids that carbohydrates (no ratio) ◦ Ex: fats, oils, waxes & sterols. Reserved energy source for organisms Found in cell & organelle membranes Waterproof coverings
Formation of Lipids Glycerol & 3 fatty acids combine to create a triglyceride (basic lipid) 3 molecules of water are released when a triglyceride is created. (dehydration synth) Acid part of fatty acid is identified by the carboxyl group 3 molecules of water are needed to break up a triglyceride. (hydrolysis)
Types of Lipids Saturated fat: all carbon to carbon bonds are single bonds (solid @ room temp) Unsaturated fat: at least one double or triple carbon to carbon bond (liquid @ room temp)
Proteins Structural component Monomer is amino acid 20 amino acids, not all are made in human body. Average protein is approx 100 amino acids long; many are larger.
Structure of Amino Acid Central carbon Surrounding central carbon are ◦ Carboxyl (-COOH) ◦ Amine (-NH 2 ) ◦ Hydrogen (-H) ◦ “R” group: 20 variable functional groups ex: H, methane (-CH 3 ), benzene rings, etc Chain of a.a held together by peptide bonds- form between the carboxyl of one a.a and the amine group of another
Protein Structure Primary ◦ Chain of amino acids Secondary ◦ Folded/pleated or coiled chain ◦ Every 5 or 6 amino acids Ex: muscle tissue, collagen, connective tissue
Protein Structure Tertiary ◦ 3D coiling of chain into a sphere-like structure Ex: enzymes Quaternary ◦ Combining several different chains into a sphere-like structure Ex: insulin & hemoglobin
Enzymes Site of chemical reactions Organic catalyst ◦ a chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without entering into the reaction or being changed. ◦ Reduces amount of energy needed for reaction to take place Ex: digestive enzymes speed up the rate of food being broken down. Does not break down the food.
Enzymes in action Substrate ◦ Material that bonds to an enzyme and is changed in the reaction Active site ◦ The region of an enzyme where the chemical reaction takes place Ex: H 2 O 2 is broken down by catalase. Enzymes function best at certain temperatures and pH levels (ex. Body temp and neutral pH)
Effect of temperature and pH Changes in pH and temp, change the shape of the active sites. Substrates can no longer fit, enzyme can’t function
Types of Enzymes Lock & Key Concept ◦ Each enzyme fits one substrate Induced Fit Concept ◦ Enzyme can slightly adjust to fit the shape of the substrate.
Nucleic Acids Stores genetic information Makes proteins Monomer is nucleotide ◦ 5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) ◦ Phosphate group ◦ Nitrogenous base Adenine & guanine are purines Thymine, cytosine & uracil are pyrimidines
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double helix Contains deoxyribose sugar Nitrogenous base pairs ◦ Adenine & thymine ◦ Guanine & cytosine
RNA Ribonucleic Acid Single strand Contains ribose sugar Nitrogenous base pairs ◦ Adenine & uracil ◦ Guanine & cytosine 3 types having different shapes & functions ◦ mRNA, tRNA & rRNA
Isomers & Stereoisomers Isomers ◦ Molecules have the same chemical formula but different structural formula Stereoisomers ◦ Molecules are the same but are mirror images of each other ◦ Dextra: right formed molecule Ex: sugars ◦ Levo: left formed molecule Ex: amino acids