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Presentation on theme: "Biomolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomolecules


3 Carbohydrates Monomers/Polymers
Slang: “Sugars” Monomers – C6H12O6 1:2:1 Monosaccharide Simple sugar Ex. - Glucose, Fructose Dimers Disaccharides Ex. - Sucrose, Lactose Polymers Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin

4 Which molecules did we see in the activity that were CARBOHYDRATES
Which molecules did we see in the activity that were CARBOHYDRATES ? How do you know?

5 Carbohydrates Chemical Structure
Carbohydrates are…  Often a Ring Have –OH group Polar C:H:O / 1:2:1 Dimer:12:24:12 ???? In reality 12:22:11 Lose a H2O in joining to make larger molecules

6 Carbohydrates Function
Energy Storage Polysaccharide Plants – Starch Energy Source Monosaccharide Glucose Structure Cellulose Cell Wall

7 Carbohydrates Dehydration Synthesis & Hydrolysis
Dehydration Synthesis – how biomolecule monomers join together to make a dimer or a polymer Hydrolysis – How long chains of biomolecules break down from polymers to monomers Uses –OH group from monomers to link, to make polymers

8 Carbohydrate Dehydration Synthesis & Hydrolysis


10 Lipids Monomers/Polymers
Slang: “Fats” Lipids (Found in many forms, worry about 4) Fats Oils Waxes Phospholipids Monomers Glycerol Fatty Acids

11 Which molecules did we see in the activity that were LIPIDS
Which molecules did we see in the activity that were LIPIDS? How do you know?

12 Lipids Chemical Structure
Carboxyl group Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrocarbon chain can have double bonds – 0 - saturated 1 – unsaturated 2+ - polyunsaturated

13 Lipids Function Long Term energy storage
Fats Membrane Structural components Help create cell membranes

14 Lipids Dehydration Synthesis & Hydrolysis
Use 3 –OH from Glycerol hydroxyl with Fatty Acid - OH

15 Glycerol & Fatty Acids




19 Proteins Monomer/Polymer
Polypeptide Monomer Amino Acid Dimer Dipeptide

20 Which molecules did we see in the activity that were PROTEINS
Which molecules did we see in the activity that were PROTEINS? How do you know?

21 Proteins Chemical Structure
All proteins have a Central Carbon Attached to that Carbon… An Amino Group A Carboxyl A Hydrogen A R Group There are 20 Different R-Groups R groups have different properties THUS 20 Different Amino Acids


23 Proteins Function Enzymes Structure Ex. - muscle, bone Antibodies
Hormones Etc.

24 Proteins Dehydration Synthesis/Hydrolysis
Section of NH2 of one amino acid with Carboxyl group of another amino acid

25 Proteins Linking Long chains of amino acids link together via Dehydration Synthesis We call this Primary Structure

26 Proteins Linking Neighboring Amino Acids exert forces on each other, causing bending or folding This is Secondary Structure

27 Proteins Linking As protein starts to coil, further Amino Acid forces cause protein to form a globular shape This is Tertiary Protein Structure

28 Protein Linking Multiple Tertiary proteins interacting form the Quaternary Structure of the protein

29 Proteins Linking


31 Nucleic Acids Monomer & Polymer
DNA/RNA - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid - RiboNucleic Acid Monomer Nucleotide But what is a Nucleotide?

32 Nucleic Acids Chemical Structure
5- sugar backbone Ribose Deoxyribose Nitrogen Base Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Uracil in RNA for Thymine Phosphate Group 

33 Nucleic Acids

34 Nucleic Acids Function
Source of Genetic Information


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