# A step-by-step way to solve problems. Scientific Method.

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A step-by-step way to solve problems. Scientific Method

Step 1 Ask a Question (state the PROBLEM) Written in the form of a question Stated clearly “Open-ended”, NOT a yes or no type question

Step 2 Do Background RESEARCH Collect information Sometimes from own experience and sometimes from sources such as books, internet, etc. Research needed to help direct problem solving approach

Step 3 Construct a HYPOTHESIS (prediction) Hypothesis: an educated guess based on research gathered and prior knowledge Written in the form of a statement Does not include personal pronouns such as I, my, we, etc. Show how two factors relate Consider an if/then statement

Step 4 Test the hypothesis (EXPERIMENT) Written in a step-by-step procedure format Should contain multiple trials (Experiment should have a control group and an experimental group)

Control Group (or control): standard for comparison in the experiment Experimental Group contains variable. -Variables: characteristics or details that change within the experiment

There are types of variables: Independent variable: characteristic you change on purpose (also known as the manipulated variable) Dependent variable: characteristic that responds to the change of the IV (usually what is being measured). Sometimes called the responding variable.

Constants (or controlled variables): details in the experiment that do not change from trial to trial. Help ensure a fair test

Step 5 Record and analyze DATA Observations and data recorded in a table, graph or chart.

Types of data Qualitative data: data that describes a property or characteristic (not numerical). (adjectives) Quantitative data: data that measures numeric information (###)

Step 6 State the CONCLUSION Written in the form of a statement A brief summary of the results which provides evidence (in the form of data) Restates the initial hypothesis Proves or disproves the hypothesis Does not include personal pronouns such as I, my, we, etc. Makes a real world connection