2 Scientific inquiry:Making observations in nature, asking questions about these observations, and actively seeking answers to those questions
3 Data: recorded observations Quantitative data: observations recorded as measurements—always involve a numberQualitative data: descriptive data (color, sound, shape, texture etc.) – used when numerical data is impossible or difficult to obtainInference: logical conclusion based on an observation; ex. if doorbell rings, then someone is at the door
4 Variables Variable: condition that can vary in an experiment Independent variable:the factor that is changed or controlled by the experimenter when testing a hypothesisDependent variable:the factor that is changed as a result of the changes made in the independent variable
5 Scientific MethodProcedures used by biologists and other scientists to gather information used in problem solving and experimentation
7 ObservationUse of the senses to gather and record information about structures or processes
8 Asking a QuestionBased on observations; one or more questions are generated
9 HypothesizingHypothesis: a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question; an educated guessAlways written as an“if…then…” statement
10 PredictingTo test hypothesis it is necessary to make predictions that logically follows from the hypothesisA statement made in advance that states the results that will be obtained from testing the hypothesis
11 TestTesting a hypothesis or prediction by gathering data under controlled conditionsControlled experiment: experiment that tests the effect of a single variableit will not be influenced by the variable the other groups are testing
12 Organizing DataInvolves placing observations and measurement (data) in ordercharts, tables, or maps
13 Analyzing Data Collected and organized data must be analyzed Graphs are frequently used to display dataThree types of graphs may be used:Line graphsBar graphsPie graphs
14 Bar Graphs X-axis: independent variable Y-axis: dependent variable Used to display numerical data that is obtained by counting
15 Line Graphs X-axis: independent variable Y-axis: dependent variable Most useful for showing trends or continuous change
16 PIE GRAPHS Uses circle divided into sections to display data Each section represents a part of the wholeAll sections placed together equal 100% of the whole
17 Forming a TheoryA broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be trueSupported by considerable evidenceTies together related hypotheses
18 TermsEvidence: collected body of data from observations and experimentsModel: physical, mathematical, or mental representations of how people understand a process or ideaTechnology: application of scientific understanding for some specific purpose
25 1. What should you do if your test does not support your hypothesis? Revise the hypothesis or pose and test a new one.
26 2. How is a prediction different from a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question, while a prediction is a statement about what will happen under a specific set of conditions. Multiple predictions can be based on a single hypothesis.
27 Independent variables answer the question "What do I change?". Dependent variables answer the question "What do I observe?".Controlled variables answer the question "What do I keep the same?".