2 The simple tensesExamples (a) It snows in Alaska. (b) Mona watches TV every day.
3 Meaning In general, the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future.
4 Simple PastExamples (c) It snowed yesterday. (d) Mona watched TV last night. Meaning At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.
5 Simple Future Examples (e) It will snow tomorrow. It is going to snow tomorrow.(f) Mona will watch TV tonight.Mona is going to watch TV tonight.MeaningAt one particular time in the future, this willhappen.
6 The Progressive Tenses Form: be + -ing (present participle) Meaning: The progressive tenses (continuous) give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time. The tenses say that an action begins before, is in progress during, and continues after another time or action.
7 Present Progressive Mona is sleeping right now. ExampleMona is sleeping right now.MeaningIt is now 11:00. Mona went to sleep at10:00 tonight, and she is still asleep. Hersleep began in the past, is in progress atthe present time, and probably willcontinue.
8 Past ProgressiveExample Mona was sleeping when I arrived. Meaning Mona went to sleep at 10:00 last night. I arrived at 11:00. She was still asleep. Her sleep began before and was in progress at a particular time in the past. It continued after I arrived.
9 Future Progressive Example Mona will be sleeping when we arrive. MeaningMona will go to sleep at 10:00 tomorrownight. We will arrive at 11:00. The actionof sleeping will begin before we arrive, andit will be in progress at a particular time inthe future. Probably her sleep willcontinue.
10 Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Page 4) Answer the questions. 1. Have you eaten today? When did you eat? 2. Had you eaten before you went to bed last night? 3. Will you have eaten by the time you go to bed tonight?
11 The Perfect TensesForm: have + past participle. Meaning: The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event.
12 Present PerfectExample Mona has already eaten. Meaning Mona finished eating sometime before now. The exact time is not important.
13 Past Perfect Mona had already eaten when her friend arrived. Meaning ExampleMona had already eaten when her friend arrived.MeaningFirst Mona finished eating. Later her friend arrived. Mona’s eating was completely finished before another time in the past.
14 Future PerfectExample Mona will already have eaten when her friend arrives. Meaning First Mona will finish eating. Later her friend will arrive. Mona’s eating will be completely finished before another time in the future.
15 Exercise 9. Warm-up. (Page 5) Answer the questions. 1. What are you doing right now? How long have you been (doing it)? 2. What were you doing last night at nine o’clock? What time did you stop (doing it)? Why did you stop (doing it)? How long had you been (doing it) before you stopped? 3. What are you going to be doing at nine o’clock tomorrow night? What time are you going to stop (doing it)? Why? How long will you have been (doing it) before you stop?
16 The Perfect Progressive Tenses Form: have + been + -ing (present participle) Meaning: The perfect progressive tenses give the idea that one event is in progress immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The tenses are used to express the duration of the first event.
17 Present Perfect Progressive Example Mona has been studying for two hours. Meaning Event in progress: studying. When? Before now, up to now. How long? For two hours.
18 Past Perfect Progressive Example Mona had been studying for two hours before her friend arrived. Meaning Event in progress: studying. When? Before another event in the past. How long? For two hours.
19 Future Perfect Progressive Example (c) Mona will have been studying for two hours by the time her friend arrives. Meaning Event in progress: studying. When? Before another event in the future. How long? For two hours.
20 Exercise 10,p5Complete the sentences with your own words. 1. I’m in class right now. I arrived in class today and sat down at ____(time). Right now the time is ____. That means that I have been sitting in this seat for ___ minutes. 2. I had been sitting here for ____minutes before class started. 3. By the time class finishes at ___ , I will have been sitting here for ____ minutes.
21 Exercise 11,p6 2. Tom is at his desk. He ____ right now. Complete the sentences with a form of study and any words in parentheses2. Tom is at his desk. He ____ right now.3. Tom had some homework to do, so he ______ last night.4. Tom began studying at 7:00 last night. His friends came over around 7:30. Tom was still at his desk when they arrived. In other words, Tom ____last night when his friends came over.2. is studying studied was studying
22 Cont.…ex. 11 5. Tom ________ tomorrow. 6. Tom is going to begin studying at 7:00 tomorrow. His friends are going to come over at 7:30. Tom _____when they arrive.7. Tom is studying Chapter 2. He (already) ______ Chapter 1.5. will study / is going to study 6. will be studying / is going to be studying 7. has already studied
23 Cont.…ex. 118. Last week Tom finished studying Chapter 1. This week he’s studying Chapter 2. He (already) ____Chapter 1 when he started Chapter 2.9. Next week Tom will finish Chapters 4 and 5. Before Tom studies Chapter 5, he (already) ____Chapter 4.10. Today Tom began studying at 8:00. Now it is 10:00. Tom ____for two hours.8. had already studied will already have studied has been studying
24 Cont.…ex. 1111. Yesterday Tom began studying at 8:00. Tom’s friends came over at 10:00. Before his friends came, Tom ____for two hours.12. It’s 8:00. Tom’s roommate gets home at 10:00. By the time Tom’s roommate gets home, Tom ____for two hours.11. had been studying will have been studying
25 Exercise 14,p9 1. Does Pedro walks to work every morning? Correct the errors in these sentences.1. Does Pedro walks to work every morning?2. What you are talking about?3. Did you finished your work?1. Does Pedro walk to work every morning? 2. What are you talking about? 3. Did you finish your work?
26 Cont.….ex.14 4. My friend doesn’t liking her apartment. 5. Do you are working for this company?6. What time your plane did it arrive?4. My friend doesn’t like her apartment. 5. A re you working for this company? / D o you work for this company?6. What time did your plane arrive?
27 Cont.….ex.14 7. How long have you are living in this city? 8. Ali won’t to be in class tomorrow.7. How long have you been living in this city? / How long have you lived in this city?8. Ali won’t be in class tomorrow.