2 Chapter 3 Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect have/has + past participlePresent Perfect Progressivehave/has + been + verb + ingPast Perfecthad + past participlePast Perfect Progressivehad + been + verb + ing
3 Present Perfect #1Situations that began in the past and continue up to now.Since + specific point in time (e.g. 2002, last May, 5pm) OR time clause I have been a teacher since 2002.Situation = being a teacherTime frame= from 2002 to now I have known Mary since I was in high school.time clause: since I was in high school.For + length of time (e.g. two months, three years)My sister has known Mary for five years.
4 Present Perfect #2Events that have or haven’t happened before now. The exact time is unspecified. ?????Use adverbs: ever, never, yet, still, alreadyJack has already finished his homework.I have never seen snow.I still haven’t seen the movie.
5 Present Perfect #33. Events that have occurred many times from a point in the past up to the present time.We have had three tests so far this quarter.I have met many people since I came here. Event: taking tests; meeting many peopleTime frame: from the beginning of the quarter until now; since I came hereDo Ex. 4 & 5
6 Exercise 4, p. 391. since 2. for 3. for 4. since 5. for 6. since 7. for 8. since
7 Present Perfect Simple Past Past event when there is no specific mention of time. ?????I have met Linda.There is a specific mention of time.I met Linda yesterday.Situations that began in the past and continue to present.I have been a teacher for ten years.(2002- now)Situations that began in the past and ended in the past.I was a teacher for ten years.(1995 – 2005)Do EX. 13
8 Exercise 13 p. 44 has never seen saw had; went haven’t had has been washas just occurred; occurredhave gotten; saw; have also gottenhave already taken**; tookhave knownknew
9 Present Perfect Progressive The duration (how long) of an activity that began in the past and continues to the present.Time Expressions – since, for, all day, all morning, all weekI have been studying since 11 am.I have been studying for two hours!It has been raining all day!
10 Non-Progressive verbs (p. 16) Present Perfect is used for Non-Progressive verbs(p. 16)I’ve known Maria since she was a child.For some not all verbs, the idea of how long can be expressed by both tenses. Verbs that happen regularly, usually, or habitually:e.g. live, work, teach, study, wear glasses, play soccerI have lived in Irvine for two years. (Pres Perfect)I’ve been living in Irvine for two years. (Pres Perf Prog)
11 Present Perfect Progressive When the tense is used without mention of time, it expresses a general activity in progress recently.Jason has been thinking about looking for a new job. He doesn’t like his job now.Do Ex. 16 & 17, 19, 21 #1
12 Exercise 16 p. 47 2. is reviewing; has been reviewing 3. is standing; has been standing4. has been playing5.have been practicing6. have been sleeping
13 Exercise 17 p. 47 Present Perfect Progressive: Simple Past: Tom has been fixing the coffee table.Tom has been cooking.Tom has been vacuuming.Tom has been memorizing 10 words.Simple Past:Tom fixed the coffee table yesterday.Tom cooked yesterday.Tom vacuumed yesterday.Tom memorized 10 words yesterday.Present Perfect:Tom has just fixed the coffee table.Tom has just cooked.Tom has just vacuumed.Tom has just memorized 10 words.
14 Exercise 19 p. 48 4. has been waiting 5. have liked (NON-ACTION - NOT PROG) p. 16 More NON-PROG. Verbs6. has been watching7. has been teaching/has taught (can use both)8. have been playing; has been playing/has played
15 Write… Write about your first day in this class. What did you see, hear, feel, think? (Simple Past). Then write about what you have done and have been doing in this class since the first day. (Present Perfect/Present Perfect Progressive)
16 Past PerfectAn activity that was complete before another activity or time in the past.Ann left at 9:30.Sam arrived at 10:00.Ann had already left when Sam arrived.
17 Past Perfect 1. Main clause: Past Perfect 2. Adverb clause: By the time… Simple PastBy the time Sam arrived, Mary had already left.By the time I came to class, the teacher had already given the homework.
18 Before & AfterPast Perfect is not necessary because the time relationship is clear.Sam had left before Ann got there.Sam left before Ann got there.After I had taken a shower, I went to bed.After I took a shower, I went to bed.
19 Reported SpeechCommonly used with verbs like: tell, say, found out, learn, discoverJenny said “I lost my keys”. Jenny said that she had lost her keys.
20 Exercise 23 p. 512. felt; had taken/took 3. had already given; got 4. was ; had stopped 5. roamed; had become; appeared 6. never saw/had never seen; visited
21 Past Perfect Progressive How long an activity was in progress before another activity or time in the past. Not common.I had been waiting for my friend since 4:30. She finally arrived at 6:00.The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.
22 Past Perfect Progressive Ex. 29I have been working outside for almost an hour.It’s hot. I think I’ll go inside.I had been working outside for almost an hour.I got too hot and came inside.I have been waiting for Jack since 5:00.I’m still here!I had been waiting for Jack since 5:00.Then I left.
23 Reported Speech: Lia said: “I have been waiting for your call.” Use Past Perfect Progressive:Lia told me that she had been waiting for my call.
24 Exercise 303. have been studying 4. had been studying 5. had been daydreaming 6. have slept/ have been sleeping