2 TENSE MEANS TIME____PRESENT TIMEPAST TIMEFUTURE TIME
3 Present Continuous Past Continuous Simple Future Future Continuous Simple PresentPresent ContinuousI am playing.Present PerfectI have played.Present PerfectContinuousI have beenplayingfor two hours.I play.Simple PastI played.Past ContinuousI was playing.Past PerfectI had played.Past PerfectContinuousI had been playingwhen you came.Future PerfectI will haveplayed.Simple FutureI will play.Future ContinuousI will be playing.Future PerfectContinuousI will have beenplayingfor two hours at2 o’clock.
4 EACH TENSE HAS FOUR FORMS There arethreeMain tensesThe PresentThe PastThe FutureEACH TENSE HAS FOUR FORMSSIMPLE: Present, Past, FutureCONTINUOUS: Present, Past, FuturePERFECT: Present, Past, FuturePERFECT CONTINUOUS: Present, Past, Future
5 5. Honesty is the best policy. 6. Our school re-opens in July. USESRepeated ActionsHabitual ActionsUniversal TruthA Future ActionSIMPLE PRESENT TENSEPresent Form Of verbORPresent Form Of Verb+‘s’ or ‘es’Examples:1.I drink tea daily.2. She drinks tea daily.3. I sing well.4. She sings well.5. Honesty is the best policy.6. Our school re-opens in July.7. Ram doesn’t go to school .8. I don’t like to read sad stories.9. Does he know the way?10. Doesn’t he play rugby?
6 Simple Past Tense Simple Future Tense Past Form Of Verb FUTURE ACTIONS Uses:PAST ACTIONNARRATION OF STORIESDESCRIPTION OF SERIES OFPAST EVENTSExamples:1. I / She received yourletter yesterday.2. It rained last week.3. She watched her brotherbeing awarded.Simple Future TenseWill + Present form of the VerbUses:FUTURE ACTIONSExamples:She will receiveyour letter tomorrow.2.It looks like itwill rain tomorrow.3.She will watch herbrother being awarded.
7 PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Is, am, are + Present Participle Uses:To describe an action that :Is happening at the moment of speaking.Going on over a period of time.Examples:1. It is raining.2. She is watching her brotherplay.3. My sister is singing on the stage.PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEWas, were + Present ParticipleUses:To describe an action thatWas going on at a point of time, When another action took place.Examples:1. It was raining at this timeyesterday.2. She was watching her brother play when the thieves entered the house.3. He was typing in his office when the fire broke out.FUTURE CONTINUOUSTENSEWill be +Present ParticipleUses:To describe an action:That will be in progress at a given point of time inthe future.Examples:1.This time tomorrow, Ishall be flying over London.2. I won’t be going for theparty tomorrow.3. The school team will begoing to Agra next week.
8 has/ have +Past Participle PAST PERFECT TENSE Had + Past Participle PRESENT PERFECT TENSEhas/ have +Past ParticipleUses:To describe an action:Which has been completedor done just now, near thepresent time.An action that has taken placeIn the past, but the action hasIts effect In the present.An action that began in the past,and is continuing in the present.Examples:He has eaten all the biscuits.He has lived here for ten years.PAST PERFECT TENSEHad + Past ParticipleUses:To describe an action thathad already taken place inthe past before another action took place In the past.Examples:When I reached the station, the train had left.2. They had already pulled down the old building before the orderwas given.FUTURE PERFECT TENSEWill/ shall have + PastParticipleUses:To describe an action thatwill be completed bysome point of time in thefuture.Examples:1.He will have left beforeyou reach.2. They will have cleanedthe streets in an hour.
9 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT Has been/ have been+Present ParticipleUse:To describe an actionwhich began in the past butIs still continuing in thepresent.Examples:He has been sleeping for five hours.They have been workingsince 9a.m.PAST PERFECTCONTINUOUSHad been+Present ParticipleUse:To describe an actionthatbegan in the past andcontinued in the past forsometime.Examples:When I visited him, hehad been teaching there for five years.FUTURE PERFECTCONTINUOUSWill have been+Present ParticipleUse:To describe an actionThat will be inprogress even after agiven point of time.Examples:By next December,We will have been livinghere for five years.
10 YOU/WE/THEY ARE READING. SHE/HE/IT IS READING. I/WE/THEY/YOU READ. PRESENT TENSEPRESENT CONTINUOUSI AM READING.YOU/WE/THEY ARE READING.SHE/HE/IT IS READING.SIMPLE PRESENTI/WE/THEY/YOU READ.SHE/HE/IT READS.PRESENT PERFECTI/WE/THEY/YOU HAVE READ.SHE/HE /IT HAS READ.PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSI/ WE/ THEY/YOU HAVE BEEN READING +TIME.SHE/HE/IT HAS BEEN READING +TIME.
11 PAST TENSE PAST PERFECT PAST CONTINUOUS SIMPLE PAST I/WE/THEY/YOU/SHE/HE/ITREAD.PAST CONTINUOUSI/SHE/HE/IT WAS READING.YOU/WE/THEY WERE READING.PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSI/WE/SHE/HE/THEY/YOU HAD BEEN READING THE BOOK WHENTHE TEACHER WENT INTO THE CLASSROOM.PAST PERFECTI/HE/SHE/YOU/WE/THEYHAD READ THE BOOK LAST WEEK.
12 FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE FUTURE FUTURE CONTINUOUS I/WE/YOU/SHE/HE/THEY WILL READ THE BOOK TOMORROW.FUTURE CONTINUOUSI/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHEWILL BE READING THE BOOK SOON.FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSI/WE/YOU/SHE/HE/THEY WILL HAVE BEEN READING THE BOOK FOR FIVE DAYS ON MONDAY.FUTURE PERFECTI/WE/YOU/SHE/HE/THEY WILL HAVE READ THE BOOK BY NEXT WEEK.
13 COMMON MISTAKES IN TENSES 1.It is raining since yesterday. XIt has been raining since yesterday.2. I reached the station before the train had arrived. XI had reached the station before the train arrived.3. Yesterday we had seen the panther. XYesterday we saw the panther.4. I had been playing a match.I had been playing a match yesterday, so couldn’t go out with my friends.